Primary and secondary sources are ways in which data can be retrieved. As Serakan (2006) stated, “Primary data refer to information obtained by the researcher on the variables of interest for the specific purpose of the study”. Various evidence suggesting to what methods of primary research can be conducted and which are most effective for the previously mentioned problem description are stated in this chapter. In the article ‘Data Collection: Primary Research Methods’, Christ (2009) wrote that, the responsibility for collecting data under primary research falls to the marketer. Marketers can select two basic approaches to collect data using primary methods: •
Qualitative Data Collection
Quantitative Data Collection
Qualitative Data Collection
Most commonly known as “touchy-feely” research, this collection method requires the researcher to interpret the information gathered, without the benefit of statistical support. However, the lack of scientific control over the research of this type as well as the time consuming factor are considered to be key drawbacks. It is also expensive and limited to a small segment of the entire market. Due to various barriers, conducting qualitative data collection methods to a large group can be difficult when deciding the final outcome. Overall, qualitative data collection methods are most suitable to be used for discovery purposes and explanations nevertheless with limitations. According to the suggested evidence and reasons, the following Qualitative data collection options will be conducted for the research design of this primary investigation.
Structured and unstructured interviews
Sekaran (2006) writes that, “Unstructured interviews are so labeled because the interviewer does not enter the interview setting with a planned sequence of questions to be asked of the respondent.” The objective of this is to bring some preliminary issues to the surface so that the researcher can determine what variables need further in-depth investigation. Furthermore, she also goes on to say that, “Structured interviews are those conducted when it is known at the outset what information is needed. The interviewer has a list of predetermined questions to be asked of the respondents either personally, through the telephone, or through the medium of a PC” Both unstructured and structured interview can be conducted face-to-face. Shown in the table is a comparison of the pros and cons of face-to-face interviews. Advantages
Ability to adopt the questions as necessary and clarify doubts.
Geographical limitations occurred if conducted nationally or internationally Ensure that the responses are properly understood, by repeating and rephrasing the questions.
The cost of training interviewers to minimize interviewer biases are high Researcher can also pick up nonverbal reactions from the respondent.
Respondents may feel uncomfortable with the anonymity of their response. Possibility of understanding and measuring the body language exhibited by the respondent. E.g.; frowns, nervous tapping
Time consuming to conducted face-to-face interviews are high Low cost because done verbally and directly
Prior appointment and approvals required before being able to conduct the interview Can motive respondents
Respondents can terminate the interview at any time Rich data can be obtained
Takes personal time
Non-participant and Participant observer
Sekaran(2006), further explains that, people can be observed in their natural work environment, activities and behaviors or other items of interest can be noted or recorded. Observing a process that occurs routinely can help the observer get a better understanding of the processes. Movements, work habits, statements made, meetings conducted, facial expression and body language of the office staff, when closely analyzed can reveal weaknesses or turning points for the study. Non-participant observer: The researcher collects the needed data without...
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