Sample Methodology

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Chapter 3

3.0 Methodology

This methodology section of the research report describes how the study will be conducted and the methods used to collect and analyse the data. The overall aim of this methodology section is to provide an overview on the methods employed so that a judgment can be made as to how appropriate they are and how valid the data that has been generated is. Throughout the methodology process, it is imperative to remember the question this research is aiming to answer for:

Has the Recession been a significant factor in bringing about change in the recruitment process within the public sector?

Introduction
The recession has affected many HR Processes and new strategies must be developed in order to adapt to the new situation and ready for the new reality (CIPD 2007). It is therefore unsurprising that there are questions and opinions as to what new strategies have been developed and how they have impacted certain HR processes. According to (Murray and Hughes 2008) there are many different fields of study covered by the term social research, and each of these can require a different technique or method of approach. However, there is agreement on the core fundamentals of research. For example, in order for research to be valid, it needs to be systematic, sceptical and ethical (Denscombe, 2002).

The purpose of methodology is to compose an underlying paradigm justifying the research methods undertaken (Blaxter et al 2001). The research methods apply to the specific techniques of data collection (Cryer 2000). The strategy of designing research should follow a logical path from methodological choices through to appropriate techniques for data collection (Creswell 2002). Creswell (2002) ensures that if this guideline is followed and the research is conducted in a thorough manner, then it is more likely the research will lead to a successful outcome. 1.2 Research Philosophy

The philosophy of research methods for social sciences is based in the techniques used to research natural sciences (Denscombe, 2002). Research tradition is about the philosophical assumptions researchers have about the world, the nature of knowledge and knowing, the role of value, and how to go about studying phenomena (Cooper 2003). The two primary frames of reference for researching social science are ontology – a theory of what exists; and epistemology – a theory of how one comes to attain knowledge (Clough & Nutbrown, 2007).

1.2.1 Ontology(实体论)

Ontology is a specification of a conceptualization (Gruber 1993). The issue of ontology covers the viewpoint that information and knowledge are a reality; so therefore it is Important take this into consideration during research. In this research the world is viewed…

1.2.2 Epistemology(认识论)

Epistemology is the study of understanding how humans acquire or create knowledge (Denscombe, 2002). Epistemology is important because it is fundamental to how humans think. Without some means of understanding how humans acquire knowledge, how humans rely upon our senses, and how humans develop concepts in our minds, humans have no coherent path for their thinking (Gruber 1993). Gruber (1993) empathizes on how a sound epistemology is necessary for the existence of sound thinking and reasoning — this is why so much social science research can involve seemingly arcane discussions about the nature of knowledge. 1.2.3 Positivism(实证主义)

The basic principle of Positivism is that all factual knowledge is based on the "positive" information gained from observable experience, and that any ideas beyond this realm of demonstrable fact are metaphysical (Clough & Nutbrown, 2007). In a positivism research, the methodology follows the philosophy that the facts are ‘out there’ to be discovered, and that they remain unaltered, regardless of whether or not they are known (Denscombe, 2002). The philosophy also follows that knowledge or facts need to be able to be confirmed in order to be...
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