Full Length Research Paper
Religiosity as a moderator of work-family demands and employees’ well-being Meguellati Achour1*, Ali Bin Boerhannoeddin2 and Aqeel Khan3 Institute of Graduate Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Faculty of Economic and Administration, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 3 Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. 2 1
Accepted 15 February, 2011
The current study was conducted to examine: (1) the relation of work-family demands, that is, long working hours, inflexible work schedule, office work overload, household work, issues related to children and husbands with employees’ well-being, and (2) the role of religiosity as a moderator of work-family demands and employees’ well-being. The following hypotheses were proposed: (a) workfamily demands would be negatively related with employees’ well-being; (b) religiosity would moderate the relation of work-family demands with employees’ well-being. The researchers used 135 Muslim women of academic staff as respondents, working in the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Their ages ranged from 30 to 60 years. The findings of the present study proved that, the hypothesis work-family demands was found to be negatively correlated with employees well being but another hypothesis was not proved as the religiosity was not moderating the relation of hypothesis work-family demands and well being. Hence, religiosity may not be effective to manage work family demands. Key words: Work-family conflict, well-being, religiosity, coping strategies, work-family demands. INTRODUCTION The human resource managers are entrusted to offer and propose solutions to many problems that are faced by workers such as job dissatisfaction, lower job performance, lesser employee commitment, as well as create a balance between work demands and family responsibilities. Recently, women’s labor force participation in Malaysia has increased rapidly to reach about 11.4 million (Eighth Malaysia Plan, 2000). The workfamily balance debate seems to focus on a number of assumptions and perceptions that work is experienced negatively, working hours in Malaysia are from eight to five, long hours of work as a problem that affects employees’ commitment to family institutions which makes combining work and family difficult in Malaysian families. If this issue is inadequately attended by employers and organizations, long-term employees unwavering performance cannot be assured. To some employers, better work-life balance means better business. This makes for the case that, work-life balance is a serious and a growing concept for employers, business owners and even human resource experts who have to find ways to help workers have a life and a job that will reap real rewards in terms of employee recruitment, retention, morale, performance and productivity. Some studies have been done on work-family conflict and found its negative impacts on employees well being have been explored extensively in Western industrialized countries (Allen et al., 2000). Despite strong indications that work and family issues are increasingly important phenomena in Asian countries, studies of work-family conflict in Asia are rare (Luk, 2001; Yang et al., 2000; Spector et al., 2004). However, those few researchers who have considered the problem believe that Asian people view work and family differently because of cultural differences. Some research results between Western and Asian countries suggest that, more research is needed to investigate work-family conflict and its impact on different groups and settings, because work
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