Recruitment ... Selection ... Performance Appraisal
Finding the right people for the job is one challenge all managers and organizations share. While managers may have the ability to redesign or adjust jobs to fit the available people, the usual challenge is the reverse. Thus, a first important step in the recruitment, selection, and placement process is undertaking a job analysis. This helps ensure you know what the employee must know and do (job requirements) and under what circumstances. There are several common mistakes one can make in the recruitment phase, including: •Restricting the pool of qualified candidates by using a poor search strategy and/or approach. An example is exclusive reliance on either internal or external recruitment no matter the position or available candidates. Another is failing to include a good array of sources to ensure a strong “talent pool.” •Writing a position description that does not match the job. This happens most frequently when there has been no careful analysis of the job and/or when there is no second level review of the analysis to help ensure accuracy. •Writing position postings/advertisements that are overly broad or are inappropriately restrictive. An example is when everything in a posting is “preferred” or everything is “required.” For those who are hiring managers the issue of whether to recruit/promote from within (internal recruiting) will likely be a familiar one. There are numerous advantages, including development of “career ladders” that help with employee retention. Simply put, a career ladder is one that plans and enables advancement up the levels of an organization. Internal recruiting can also help organizations preserve and protect critical knowledge, values, and practices. Transitions can be smoother, with less negative impact on productivity. One thing organizations can and should do when wishing to leverage internal talent is to inventory the knowledge, skills, experiences, interests, and abilities of their employees. When the organization has the needed financial and technology resources, these can captured electronically in a knowledge management or human resource information system (HRIS). Performance appraisals, when done well, can also prove rich and useful sources of information about employee interests and potential. An exclusive reliance on internal recruiting has its potential disadvantages. One is that there may be no one in the organization who has the knowledge and skills for either new initiatives or those where there is no room for downtime or training. Another is that it may be difficult for the organization to refresh its talent pool and learn by recruiting those with diverse knowledge, experiences, abilities, and perspectives. Selection
Selecting the best candidate for a position is both a critical management function and one that can be difficult. It is useful to begin by recognizing that there is no failsafe method of ensuring the right choice is made. Mistakes happen regularly and the consequences for all parties can be enormous. As Bohlander & Snell (2009, p. 254) report the average cost of a mismatch has been estimated at anywhere from $20,000 to $100,000 for intermediate and senior positions. This is just the financial cost and does not consider the frequent emotional and even physical distress bad hiring decisions can have on the candidate, other employees, an organization and manager’s reputation, and beyond. As discussed in the section above, an important first step is to conduct a careful job analysis that provides as much information about what knowledge, skills, abilities, experiences, preferences, etc. will lead to success. Ensuring a good match between important organizational and candidate values is also a critical and sometimes forgotten factor. To illustrate this point, it is useful to envisage a candidate who is seeking an improved quality and balance in his/her personal life...