Reaction of Chapter1 in Life and Works of Rizal

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I. PANORAMIC SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES IN THE 19TH CENTURY

The panaromic survey of the Philippines composed of social structure, educational system, political system and sources of abuses in the administrative system.
The Filipinos are ruled by the Spaniards in the 19th century. The Spaniards claimed all forms of taxes while the Filipinos are appointed to work with the Spaniards. The poor became poorer because of being slaves. The social structure of the Philippines in the 19th century is like a pyramid where in the Spanish officials and friars has the authority and power. They enjoyed their positions and do what they want. In the middle is the native mestizo’s. This is the mixed of racial ancestry (the Filipinos and Spaniards) and in the base is the biggest and lowest natives or the Filipinos.

The Philippines in the 19th century in terms of educational system has a low quality of education because there was no systematic supervision of school, very poor classroom facilitates. Lack of tables, chairs, classrooms. Also absence of teaching materials such as books, visual aid, etc. So students not really focused to their studies because of this kind of system in education. Therefore it should have training schools for the teachers to develop their teaching strategies, enhanced their skills the way they explain the lessons. It should have a supervision of school in order for the teachers to be guided and also the students. In political system the officials are being appointed.

The country opened up during the 19th century. The rise of an ambitious, more nationalistic Filipino middleclass, consisting of educated native Filipinos, Philippine-born Spaniards and creoles, Spanish mestizos and an economically entrenched Chinese mestizo community, signaled the end of Spanish colonialism in the islands.
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