Qualitative Research

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A Companion to

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

A Companion to

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Edited by Uwe Flick, Ernst von Kardorff and Ines Steinke

Translated by Bryan Jenner

SAGE Publications
London


Thousand Oaks ● New Delhi

Translation © 2004 This English edition first published 2004 Originally published in the series “rowohlts enzyklopädie” under the title QUALITATIVE FORSHCHUNG – Ein Handbuch Copyright © 2000 Rowohlt Ttaschenbuch Verlag GmbH, Reinbek bei Hamburg Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B-42, Panchsheel Enclave Post Box 4109 New Delhi 110 017 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 7619 7374 5 ISBN 0 7619 7375 3 (pbk) Library of Congress Control Number 2003112201

Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India Printed in Great Britain by Bell & Bain Ltd, Glasgow

Contents
Notes on Editors and Contributors Preface PART 1 INTRODUCTION 1 What is Qualitative Research? An Introduction to the Field Uwe Flick, Ernst von Kardorff and Ines Steinke ix xii 1 3

PART 2 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN ACTION: PARADIGMATIC RESEARCH STYLES Introduction 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Anselm Strauss Bruno Hildenbrand Erving Goffman Herbert Willems Harold Garfinkel and Harvey Sacks Jörg R. Bergmann Paul Willis and the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies Rolf Lindner Paul Parin, Fritz Morgenthaler and Goldy Parin-Matthèy Maya Nadig and Johannes Reichmayr Clifford Geertz Stephan Wolff Norman K. Denzin: Life in Transit Yvonna S. Lincoln Marie Jahoda Christian Fleck

13 15 17 24 29 35 40 47 53 58

PART 3 THE THEORY OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Introduction 3A: 3.1 3.2 BACKGROUND THEORIES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Phenomenological Life-world Analysis Ronald Hitzler and Thomas S. Eberle Ethnomethodology Jörg R. Bergmann

63 65 67 67 72

vi

CONTENTS

3.3 Symbolic Interactionism Norman K. Denzin 3.4 Constructivism Uwe Flick 3.5 Social Scientific Hermeneutics Hans-Georg Soeffner 3B: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMMES

81 88 95

101 101 108 113 118 123 129 137

3.6 Qualitative Biographical Research Winfried Marotzki 3.7 Qualitative Generation Research Heinz Bude 3.8 Life-world Analysis in Ethnography Anne Honer 3.9 Cultural Studies Rainer Winter 3.10 Gender Studies Regine Gildemeister 3.11 Organizational Analysis Lutz von Rosenstiel 3.12 Qualitative Evaluation Research Ernst von Kardorff PART 4 METHODOLOGY AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Introduction 4.1 Design and Process in Qualitative Research Uwe Flick 4.2 Hypotheses and Prior Knowledge in Qualitative Research Werner Meinefeld 4.3 Abduction, Deduction and Induction in Qualitative Research Jo Reichertz 4.4 Selection Procedures, Sampling, Case Construction Hans Merkens 4.5 Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Not in Opposition Udo Kelle and Christian Erzberger 4.6 Triangulation in Qualitative Research Uwe Flick 4.7 Quality Criteria in Qualitative Research Ines Steinke PART 5 DOING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Introduction 5A: ENTERING THE FIELD

143 145 146 153 159 165 172 178 184

191 193 195

CONTENTS

vii

5.1 Ways into the Field and their Variants Stephan Wolff 5B: COLLECTING VERBAL DATA 5.2 Qualitative Interviews: An Overview Christel Hopf 5.3 Interviewing as an Activity Harry Hermanns 5.4 Group Discussions and Focus...
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