Ptsd

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There are several psychological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These factors interfere with the emotional processing of the traumatic event (Edwards D. , 2005). These factors include painful emotions, which leads to avoidance which thus maintains the PTSD (Edwards D. , 2005). Therefore the analysis of these maintaining factors provides the basis for current approaches to treatment and intervention which will support the individuals in challenging these factors (Edwards D. , 2005). A large number of people who experience and suffer from PTSD do not receive the care they need to address this psychological disorder (Litz, Williams, Wang, Bryant, & Engel Jr, 2004). These large numbers of potential traumatised individuals require an evidence-based mental health intervention as Litz, et al (2004) has stated. Evidenced-based practice is defined as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current evidence in making the appropriate decisions about the care of the individual patient, which means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best and most appropriate external clinical evidence from systematic research (Edwards D. , 2005). There are many treatment and intervention methods for PTSD, whether they are effective tends to rely on the individual, environmental context and possibly the counsellor or therapist. PTSD is usually treated on an individual basis. This means only the individual is treated for the trauma. An effective method for PTSD and an individual suffering from a traumatic event after the fact is cognitive behavioural therapy. This treatment is devised to be individualized, with varying degrees of emphasis placed on certain interventions which depend on the individual’s needs (Beck & Coffey, 2007). This programme does place an extreme importance on exposure-based interventions, which is in keeping with current theories on PTSD (Beck & Coffey, 2007). Litz, et al, state that Cognitive Behavioural therapy is a mixture of stress management, self-care planning, cognitive reframing, and exposure therapy and relapse prevention. Therefore both agree that PTSD and CBT are a good method for intervention and reduction of the disorder. However CBT does pose many challenges to the treatment in certain situations or contexts. One of the challenges facing CBT and PTSD treatment, is that CBT is therapist intensive which poses an obstacle to the provision of therapy in a time of disaster or mass violence especially if the therapist resources are limited (Litz, Williams, Wang, Bryant, & Engel Jr, 2004). Beck and Coffey (2007) agree and state that adapting individual format therapies to be appropriate for a group setting is not clear-cut. Another challenge for CBT, is that it is not cost- effective as was noted both by Litz, et al (2004) and Beck, et al (2007).To be maximally useful in a time of disaster, brief, cost effective evidence based interventions designed to reach a larger number of people needs to be generated (Litz, Williams, Wang, Bryant, & Engel Jr, 2004). AS Beck, et al (2007) states group therapy costs less but careful consideration must be taken into account to both the content and process of the intervention. Supportive psychotherapy is another form of intervention for PTSD, and it has been show to be somewhat effective (Beck & Coffey, 2007). Supportive psychotherapy concentrates on normalizing the traumatic experience and processing it in the context of other losses the individual may have experienced. 40% of patients in the Bryant et al study from 2003 showed that supportive therapy was effective but not as efficacious as CBT (Beck & Coffey, 2007). Supportive psychotherapy is effective but CBT has more success in the elimination of PTSD although supportive therapy has some treatment advantages (Beck & Coffey, 2007) Another form of intervention is psychological debriefing, psychological debriefing...
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