HCA 240 Week 8
CHRISTIE MC CULLUM-HILL
There are many different mental illnesses that many people suffer from. I am going to discuss Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). I am going to talk about the history of PTSD, past and present treatment of PTSD, the signs and symptoms of PTSD, the neurotransmitters that are associated with PTSD, how PTSD is diagnosed, and how the patients environment promote or detract from successful treatment. Let’s go into the world of PTSD.
The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment research, including the development of new treatments, their evaluation in outcome trials, and greater diversity of client samples. At this point, there are two major models of evidence based psychotherapy treatments for PTSD: Present focused and past focused. In past-focused models, the client tells the trauma story in full detail as a way to face the feelings that arise from it. In present focused models, the client learns coping skills to improve functioning (e.g., social skills, relaxation, grounding, and cognitive restructuring). Examples of past-focused models include eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and exposure therapy. Examples of present-focused models include stress inoculation training and anxiety management. Research indicates, overall, that both present- and past-focused models are effective, neither outperforms the other, both outperform treatment-as-usual, and the combination of both models does not outperform either one alone ( Najavits, 2006). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops after a traumatic event. PTSD has also been called shell shock or battle fatigue. The exact cause of PTSD is unknown. PTSD is triggered by exposure to a traumatic event. Situations in which a person feels intense fear, helplessness, or horror are considered traumatic. PTSD has been reported in people who experienced: War, Rape, Physical assault, Earthquakes, Fire, Sexual abuse, Motor vehicle accidents, Attacks from an animal. Researchers are studying how problems with synapses in the brain may be linked to PTSD. Not everyone who experiences a traumatic event will develop PTSD. Symptoms of PTSD are more likely to occur if the person has: Previous traumatic experiences, A history of being physically abused, Poor coping skills, Lack of social support, Existing ongoing stress, A social environment that produces shame, guilt, stigmatization, or self-hatred, Alcohol abuse, Family psychiatric history. People with PTSD experience symptoms of anxiety. These symptoms fall into three categories: * Re-experiencing of the event
* Dreams or nightmares
* Anxious reactions to reminders of the event
* Avoiding close emotional contact with family and friends * Avoiding people or places that are reminders of the event * Loss of memory about the event
* Feelings of detachment, numbness
* Difficulty falling or staying asleep
* Anger and irritability
* Difficulty concentrating
* Being easily startled
Physical symptoms may also occur, such as:
* Stomach and digestive problems
* Chest pain
People with PTSD may also abuse alcohol or drugs . The doctor will ask you about your symptoms and medical history. This could be done by a structured interview and/or a questionnaire. You will also likely be given a psychological assessment. PTSD will be diagnosed if you have the specified symptoms, they last for more than one month, and they result in both emotional distress and disturbed functioning (problems at school, work, and/or in family and peer relationships). PTSD is categorized according to when symptoms occur and how long they last. There are three types of PTSD: * Acute—symptoms last between 1-3 months after the...