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11/28/2012

Ch 14: Personality
1. What is it? 2. Freud’s theory 3. Behavior theory 4. Biological theory 5. Humanistic theory Rosellini PSY 101 Ch 14 1

Personality
 An

individual's unique constellation of consistent behavior across a wide variety of situations.  Personality theories: – A bit of history Galen – Psychoanalytic – Behavioral – Biological – Humanistic Rosellini PSY 101 Ch 14 2

A bit of history: Galen 130-200AD 130Personality Choleric Melancholic Phlegmatic Sanguine & dominant humor bad tempered & irritable (Yellow bile) gloomy & pessimistic (Black bile) sluggish & unexcitable (Phlegm) cheerful & passionate (Blood) PSY 101 Ch 14 3











Rosellini

Rosellini PSY 101 Person. Ch 14

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Major Personality Theories
 Psychoanalytic

– Freud, Jung, Horney
 Behavioral

– Skinner, Bandura
 Biological

– Eysenck
 Humanistic:

– Maslow, May, Rogers

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FREUD: THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY


Id: Primitive instinctual component of the Id: personality
– The driving force to satisfy basic needs (sex, food, etc) – Pleasure principle - Immediate gratification – Primary process: primitive, irrational, fantasy oriented



Ego: Ego: executive component of the personality
– Functions to meet the demands of the ID in realistic ways – Reality Principle - delay gratification until safe methods of satisfaction are available – Secondary process: rational, realistic, problem solving



Superego: Superego: moral component of the personality
– Conscience – ego ideal

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Freud’s Levels of Awareness
Conscious Preconscious  Unconscious
 

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Rosellini PSY 101 Person. Ch 14

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Conflict Among the Id, Ego, & Superego Produces Anxiety Ego Defense Mechanisms: reduce/prevent anxiety Mechanisms: Types of Mechanisms: – Repression: unpleasant thoughts and feelings forced into Repression: the unconscious – Projection: attributing disturbing thoughts and feelings to Projection: others. – Displacement: emotional reaction directed at a substitute Displacement: target. – Reaction Formation: behaving the opposite of your true Formation: feelings and desires. – Identification: increasing your self-worth by forming an Identification: selfattachment to another person or group. Rosellini PSY 101 Ch 14 7

 

Stages of Psychosexual Development


Oral Stage(0-1 yrs) Stage(0– Incorporative – Expulsive

Fixation
Gullible Sarcastic Messy Miserly



Anal Stage (1-3 yrs) (1– Expulsive – Retentive



Phallic Stage (3-7 yrs) (3– Oedipus Complex – & Castration Anxiety – Electra Complex – & Penis Envy Sex Identity Problems

 

Latent State (7-13 yrs) (7Genital Stage (13-99 yrs) (13PSY 101 Ch 14 8

Rosellini

Assessment of Freud's Theory


Positive Aspects:
– Historical influence on Western Psychology – Unconscious forces can influence behavior – Internal conflict can generate distress – Emphasis on importance of early experiences – Attempt to explain both normal & abnormal behavior – Psychoanalysis has helped some people – Generalization to other fields: e.g., English & Philosophy

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Rosellini PSY 101 Person. Ch 14

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Assessment of Freud's Theory


Negative Aspects: – Historical influence on psychology – Not Scientific:  Case

study method: Inadequate evidence (find what you expect to see)  Lack of falsifiability (Ambiguity of terms)  Lack of Prediction

Rosellini

– Dogmatism by Freud & his followers – Length, cost, and questionable effectiveness of psychoanalysis Overemphasis on sex & Sexism (???) – Not used in psychology departments PSY 101 Ch 14 10

Behavioral Perspectives (Skinner, Bandura)
Personality: Pavlovian and Operant conditioning  Emotionality: Pavlovian Conditioning  "Voluntary" behavior: Operant Conditioning via Contingencies of...
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