Compare and Constrast Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

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Based on Freud’s theory (psychoanalytic) human functioning 1. The structure of the mind and the distinct functions of Personality The Freud's structural theory (Freud, 1923, 1926) dispenses with the concepts of a fixed id, ego and superego, and point out unconscious and conscious conflict among wishes:dependent,Controlling,Sexual,Aggressive,guilt,shame,emotions (especially anxiety and depressive affect), And defensive operations that shut off from consciousness some aspect of the others. Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the " Psychic apparatus " of Freud 's structural model of Moreover, healthy functioning (adaptive) is also determined, to a great extent, by resolutions of conflict. According to Freud’s theory that explain human functioning based on three level, Ego strengths include the capacities to control oral, sexual, and destructive impulses; to tolerate painful affects without falling apart; and to prevent the eruption into consciousness of bizarre symbolic fantasy. Synthetic functions, in contrast to autonomous functions, arise from the developmet of the ego and serve the purpose of managing conflictual processes. Defenses are an example of synthetic functions and serve the purpose of protecting the conscious mind from awareness of forbidden impulses and thoughts. One purpose of ego psychology has been to emphasize that there are mental functions that can be considered to be basic, and not the derivatives of wishes, affects, or defenses 2. Defence mechanism

The ego fights acontinual battle to stay on top of the warring id and superego. Occasionally, their conflicts produce anxiety that threatens to overwhelm the ego. The anxiety is a signal that alerts the ego to marshal defence mechanisms.Unconcious protective processes that keep primitive emotions associated with conflicts in check so that the ego can cotinue its coordinating function.We all use defence mechanisms at times,they are sometimes adaptive and other time they are maladaptive.Human use defence mechanisms to function well and this defence mechanism can be used under the unconscious and conscious state of mind. However, it is important to note that autonomous ego functions can be secondarily affected because of unconsious conflict. For example, a patient may have an hysterical amnesia (memory being an autonomous function) because of intrapsychic conflict (wishing not to remember because it is too 3.The stages of Psychosexual development

Freud’s assume that each child is born with a source of basic psychological energy called libido. Further, each child’s libido becomes successively focused on various parts of the body (in addition to people and objects) in the course of his emotional development. During the first postnatal year, libido is initially focused on the mouth and its activities, nursing enables the infant to derive gratification through a pleasurable reduction of tension in the oral region. Freud called this the oral stage of development. During the second year, the source of excitation is said to shift to the anal area, and the start of toilet training leads the child to invest libido in the anal functions. Freud called this period of development the anal stage. During the period from three through six years, the child’s attention is attracted to sensations from the genitals, and Freud called this stage the phallic stage. The half dozen years before puberty are called the latency stage. During the final and so-called genital stage of development, mature gratification is sought in a heterosexual love relationship with another. Freud believed that adult emotional problems result from either deprivation or excessive gratification during the oral, anal, or phallic stages. A child with libido fixated at one of these stages would in adulthood show specific neurotic symptoms, such as anxiety. According to him, unconscious mental structure called the id contains a person’s inborn, inherited drives and instinctual forces and is closely...
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