Psychodynamic Theories

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ANTHONY BILLSON 5.2 PAGE 2

Psychodynamic Theory

As a group over the last few weeks we have been dicussing has a group the 3 main theories of counselling and after careful deliberation ive chosen to do my presentation on the psychodynamic theory.Psychodynamics is the theory and systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behaviour. It is especially interested in the dynamic relations between conscious and unconscious motivation .Psychodynamic therapies depend upon a theory of inner conflict, wherein repressed behaviours and emotions surface into the patient’s consciousness; generally, one conflict is subconscious .Psychodynamics was initially developed by Sigmund Freud ,Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. By the mid 1940s and into the 1950s, the general application of the "psychodynamic theory" had been well established. When talking about Psychodynamic theory the first name that pops into most peoples heads is Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud was Born in Austria on May 6, 1856, Sigmund Freud theorized and practiced neuropsychology, studying first hysteria and then sexuality. A highly controversial intellectual figure of the 20th century, he studied dreams, defined what he called the Oedipus complex and laid out three stages of infantile sexual development . He remains one of the most influential figures in today's world. His name alone symbolizes the importance of his theories, and the name that comes to most people's heads when saying the word psychology is Sigmund Freud. Freud was a psychodynamic psychologist and that came from Freud's view on the mind is in the shape of an iceberg. He believes that mankind's mind works in the unconscious. Every choice that mankind makes he is aware of, but maybe the consequences of our action might be unknown. The Structure of Personality which is another interesting part of Freud's theory basically states that we have an ID, a Superego and an Ego. The ID is a biological reservoir of urges and impulses that need to be gratified. He says the ID does not have a conscious , it acts on instinct and it seeks out gratification and pleasure. It is the pleasure principle. The Superego is the Morality Principle, and the Superego knows the difference between right and wrong. The Superego is a bunch of learned internalized morals and values of society. This is basically the thing that keeps the ID in check. Freud said that Superego is our conscious, and that the Superego is the most powerful tool (guilt and pride). Last but not least is the Ego, which is the reality principle. The Ego finds socially acceptable ways to satisfy the ID. It finds the balance between the ID and reality. The functions of the Ego is to find a compromise between the ID and the Superego. The Ego must also learn to deal with anxiety, and it also helps to boost the self-esteem. Without the Ego there would be no mental health. After researching Freud's theory of the Structure of Personality I feel we have different parts of our behavior that we can control and that we are conscious about and there are other behaviors that come directly from our unconscious . Our ego lies to us, denies, falsifies, and distorts reality which in turn causes us to create what Freud likes to call the seven defense mechanisms. The first of the seven defense mechanisms is Repression. Repression pushes the problem to the subconscious. It is the exclusion of impulses and thoughts from the conscious mind. Next comes Denial, and denial is the cutting of the conscious mind from external threats.

ANTHONY BILLSON 5.2 PAGE 3

An example of this would be when you are walking in the mall with your girlfriend and a beautiful woman walks by and you look but when your girlfriend asks you say, "I wasn't looking at her." Next there is a defense mechanism called Sublimation which is the changing of bad behavior and impulses into socially acceptable behavior and impulses. One example of this could be playing football for a scholarship...
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