Psychodynamic Perspectives- view personality as being primarily unconscious and as developing in stages. Psychodynamic theorists believe that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that to truly understand someone’s personality we have to explore the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind. These ideas were sketched by the architect of psychoanalytic theory-Sigmund Freud. Most psychodynamic perspectives emphasize that early experiences with parents play an important role in sculpting the individual’s personality. Freud believed the personality had three structures. (The id, the ego, and the super-ego). The id consists of instincts and is the reservoir of psychic energy. It is unconscious and has no contact with reality. The id always seeks pleasure. The ego, deals with demands of reality. The ego abides by the reality principle; it checks the demands of the id for pleasure against what is possible into the real world. The ego helps us to test reality, to see how far we can go in satisfying our desires without getting into trouble and hurting ourselves. The super-ego is the moral branch of personality. It is what we often refer to as our “conscience”. Like the id, the superego does not consider reality; it only considers whether the id’s sexual and aggressive impulses can be satisfied in moral terms. Some psychoanalysts who followed Freud, embracing his core ideas about personality, soon took issue with some aspects of his theory. Dissenters questioned his ideals about sexuality, early experience, social factors, and the unconscious mind.
Behavioral perspective- Skinner argued that personality is the... [continues]
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