PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT Management defined
Perceptive of Managers: There are many definitions of management but most perceptive managers are convinced that it is an organized effort of people whose purpose is to achieve the objectives and goals of an organization. Of course, it is not that simple. To gain a better understanding of management, let’s review the ideas and views expressed by academicians and practitioners. Management as a “Process”: McFarland defines management as “A process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organization through systematic, coordinated, cooperative human efforts”. An important tern in this definition is “Process”. This term emphasis the dynamic or on going nature of management, an activity over varying span of time. The dynamic nature implies that change is reality of organizational life. In managing organizations, managers create changes adopt organizations to changes and implement changes successfully in their organizations. Businesses fail and become bankrupt because managers fail in their attempt to cope with the change. Management as “coordination”: Donally, Gibson and Ivancevich also support the view of management as a process but their stress in more on co-ordination. According to them, “Management is a process by which individual and group effort is coordinated towards group goals”. In order to achieve goals, coordination is essential and management involves securing and maintaining this coordination. This coordination effort is also stressed in the definition of Koontz and O’Donnell. According to them, “Management is a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which, individuals, working together in groups efficiently and effectively accomplish group goals”. Management as a “Function”: There are those who view management as a function rather than a process. Dunn, Stephens and Kelly contend that “Management is a role which includes a set of duties, responsibilities, and relationships-involved in work organizations”. These duties and responsibilities constitute the function a manager performs. The duties and responsibilities a manager performs are quite different from those performed by managerial employees.
Management is getting things done through other people: A simple definition of management that is often quoted and it sounds very simple. According to this definition, managers do not do things they get other people to do things. If managing is an individual ability to get things done, then it is not a problem. We can plan and perform things according to our own convince and interests. When somebody else is involved and wants to get things done through them, there is a difficulty. All sorts of problems arise; personalities come into contact and conflict. Interpersonal problems crop up. We have to understand the behavior of other people and must have knowledge as to how to motivate them in order to get things done through them. We have to consider the conveniences and interest of others also in planning and implementing things. In getting things done through others, people have to be coaxed, they have to be shown, they have to inspired, they have to be motivated and this is what management means. These activities are performed not only by the people at the top but from the chairman of the board to the front line supervisors and foremen. They use the above mentioned methods to get things done through other people. A comprehensive definition of Management: In mid 1940s, academic people from various business schools in the United States gathered together with the sole purpose of deciding whether a definition of management could be written that businessmen would accept and practice and academicians would teach. Ultimately they came up with the fallowing definition. No individual is identified with this definition. The definition reads; “Management is guiding human and physical resources into a dynamic organization units that attain their...
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