Principal and Practices of Management

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Difference between Administration /Management
Answer:
There are many factors according to which administration can be distinguished from management. These are as follows: Nature of work
Administration: It is concerned about the determination of objectives and major policies of an organization. Management: It puts into action the policies and plans laid down by the administration. Type of function

Administration:It is a determinative function.
Management: It is an executive function.
Scope
Administration:It takes major decisions of an enterprise as a whole. Management: It takes decisions within the framework set by the administration. Level of authority
Administration:It is a top-level activity.
Management: It is a middle level activity.
Nature of status
Administration:It consists of owners who invest capital in and receive profits from an enterprise. Management: It is a group of managerial personnel who use their specialized knowledge to fulfill the objectives of an enterprise. Nature of usage

Administration:It is popular with government, military, educational, and religious organizations. Management: It is used in business enterprises.
Decision making
Administration:Its decisions are influenced by public opinion, government policies, social, and religious factors. Management: Its decisions are influenced by the values, opinions, and beliefs of the managers. Main functions

Administration:Planning and organizing functions are involved in it. Management: Motivating and controlling functions are involved in it. Abilities
Administration:It needs administrative rather than technical abilities. Management: It requires technical activities
Management handles the employers.
Administration handles the buisness aspects such as finance. Common drawbacks in classical and neo classical theories of management? Answer:
1) Both theories were based on certain assumptions and in both cases assumptions were found unrealistic and not applicable to the organizations at a later date 2) Both theories had limited applicability and were not universal in their approach. With the changing times several other sectors had cropped up and dynamics and working conditions were changing, whereas both the theories were based primarily on manufacturing sector. 3) Though both the theories were based on human aspect and laid emphasis on it they failed to take into account all the aspects of the human behavior 4) Both the theories took a rigid and static view of the organization, whereas an organization is not static but dynamic Many management Gurus believe that neo classical theory is just a slight extension of the classical theory with slight modifications and its bankrupt, because it suggests nothing new

Classical theories of management relate to the earliest theories of management, that really led to recognition of management as and independent discipline of work and study. These included the ideas of pioneers like Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank Gilbreth. Max Weber, and Henry Fayol. These theories came into being beginning from late nineteenth century and were considered the core of management theory till about 1930's. Neo-classical theories of management developed during 1920's and later. These can be broadly divides in two groups - theories related to human aspects of management, and quantitative management techniques. Each of the theories under classical and neo-classical groups have their own values and limitations. But when we come to the common drawbacks of these theories, i can think of only one. All these theories concentrated on some limited aspect of management, and treated is as if it is the sole or most important aspect of management. Also, as would be natural to any developing discipline of management. Thus while people like Taylor concentrated too much on physical aspects of work, people connected with Hawthorne Studies, erroneously believed that they have discovered truths about shop-floor...
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