Principles and Practices of Management

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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MANAGEMENT
Subject Code – B-101
Section A:
PART ONE
Multiple choice questions with single response:
Q1. A | | Q6. C|
Q2. B| | Q7. B|
Q3. D| | Q8. D|
Q4. A| | Q9. A|
Q5. A| | Q10. D|

PART TWO
Short notes type questions:
Q1. Differentiate between ‘Administration’ and ‘Management’ The Major differences between the Administration and Management can be summed up as below: * Administration frames the objectives and policies of an organization, whereas management does work hard to put into practice these policies and objectives.

* Administration is determinative in character while management is executive in character.

* Administration is the body that takes vital decisions of an organization, whereas management too takes decisions, but confines them to a certain framework only.

* Administrators are found in government, educational and religious bodies whereas managers are found in business firms.

* Administration mainly involves planning and organizing functions and the Management mainly involves motivating and controlling functions even thou the planning & organizing is part of the Management.

Q2. What are the drawbacks in classical and Neo classical theories of management?

The major draw backs of Classical theories are as below:

* This theory is based on certain assumptions and these assumptions were found unrealistic and hence not applicable to organizations at later date. * This system viewed the organization as a closed system and hence no interaction with the outside world. * This theory took a rigid and static view of the organization where as an organization is not static but dynamic. * This theory ignored the complexities of human behavior at work, it assumed that the human beings as inert machines who performs tasks assigned to them and ignored their social, psychological and motivational aspects of human behavior. * This theory assumed that people can be motivated only through economic rewards which are wrong. * This theory lacks universality.

* This theory has focused excessive reliance on the strength of four key pillars. i.e., division of labour, scalar and functional process, structure and the span of control. To summarize the classical management theory is heavily mechanical in nature and attempted to establish hierarchies and impose a high degree of specialization into individual jobs. Its primary drawback was its rigid nature.

The major draw backs of Neo classical theories are as below:

* This theory assumed that there is a solution to every problem which satisfies everyone in an organization, this is not true, and often there are conflict interests among various groups in the organization. * This theory application is limited; there is no particular structure which may serve the purpose of all the organizations. It also overlooks some of the environmental constraints which managers cannot ignore and this lapse makes the practicability of the theory limited. * All the changes done to this theory is simply modification of the classical theory rather than organizational transformation. So, this theory has almost the same limitations as the classical theory. * This theory gives more emphasis on human aspects, this ignores the other aspects such as formal structure, discipline, etc. Neoclassical management theory attempted to allow for creativity and individual personal growth by addressing human needs. The most famous study on neoclassical management principles described the Hawthorne effect, that simply paying attention to employees in a positive manner increased productivity. The most significant drawback to neoclassical management theory was that it led many managers to focus on "feel-good" measures.

Q3. Write short note on “Line Organisation”

Historically this is the oldest form of an organization. This is...
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