Positive Politeness

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  • Topic: Politeness theory, Politeness, Politeness maxims
  • Pages : 15 (5550 words )
  • Download(s) : 119
  • Published : March 5, 2013
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I.Research Background
Communication has an important role in our life. According to Gartside communication is the art of sharing anything. In its vital sense it means a sharing of ideas and feelings in a mood mutual understanding (1986:1). Thus, people can cooperate with each other when they communicate just as they do in any other shared activity. Communication is usually defined as conversation, namely for sending and receiving message. If the message cannot be received it means that communication does not work well. In order to make communication run in harmony, the hearer should know the speaker’s aim. Moreover, every day we adapt our conversation to different situations. Among our friends for instance, we can easily say something that would be seen discourteous among strangers and we avoid over formally with our friends. In both situations above we try to avoid making the hearer embarrassed and uncomfortable. People generally behave in accordance with their expectation concerning their public self-image or face wants to be respected. Face means public self image of a person; it refers to the emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects everyone to recognize (Yule, 1996:60). Face has two aspects, positive and negative. An individual’s positive face is reflected in his or her desires to be liked, approved of, respected of and appreciated by others. While an individual’s negative face is reflected in the desire not be impeded or put upon, to have the freedom to act as one chooses (Thomas, 1995:169). Therefore, people in their relationship need to preserve both kinds of faces for themselves and the people they interact with the politeness utterances. According to Brown and Levinson (1987:65), certain kinds of acts intrinsically threaten face, namely those acts that by their nature run contrary to the face want of the hearer and / or of the speaker. For example, the hearer’s positive face will damage when the speaker insulting the hearer, and also the hearer’s negative face will damage when the speaker order the hearer. It could also damage the speaker’s own positive and negative face for example, when the speaker admits that he has failed in his job and when the speaker offers help to the hearer. FTAs are acts that infringe on the hearer’s need to maintain his or her self-esteem and be respected, http://en.wikipedia.org./wiki/pragmatics. In order to avoid or minimize to reduce the possibility of damage to the hearer’s face or to the speaker’s own face, he or she may adopt certain strategies. Brown and Levinson sum up human politeness behavior in four strategies among them are the bald on record strategy, the positive politeness strategy, the negative politeness strategy, and bald off record strategy.

II.Problem Statements
Based on the research background above, the researcher proposes the main problems as follows: 1. What kinds of positive politeness strategies are employed by the characters in the film entitled “In Good Company” based on Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategy? 2. What factors influence the characters to employ those strategies?

III.Theoretical Review
A.Politeness Strategy
Politeness is a system of interpersonal relations designed to facilitate interaction by human interaction by minimizing, potential conflict and confrontation inherent in all human interchange (Yule, 1996:106). In communication, politeness can be defined as the means to show awareness of another person’s face. Face means public self-image of person. It refers to that emotional and social sense of self that every person has and expects everyone else to recognize (Yule, 1996:134). According to Fasold (1996:160), face means something that is emotionally invested. It can be lost, maintained, or enhanced, and must be constantly attended to in interaction. According to Brown and Levinson (in Fasold, 1996:160), face has two aspects, namely ‘positive’ and ‘negative’. 1. Negative face

Negative face is the...
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