(By: Muhammad Attique Shah Turabi)
Definition of corruption:
“Misuse of the power for private or personal gain or for other unfair means”. “Dishonest or illegal behavior of the people especially of the people in authority”. By every definition corruption means the violations of the laws of land and social norms and it is Root cause of all ills in Pakistan. Corruption is connected with bribery; it will be useful to define it, too. The word bribe literally stands for money as favors bestowed on or promised to a person in a position of trust in order to prevent a judgment or corrupt his conduct. It is thus clear that corruption and bribery go hand in hand and cover a big sphere of social activity, which can be disrupted to an extent that makes people’s lives miserable and retards the growth of a country. Types of Corruption:
• Incidence of corruption:
* Corruption in Pakistan:
After the great leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah corruption was just a problem and it remained problem up to the government of shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto but after Zulifqar Ali Bhutto It has become a culture in Pakistan. Corruption remains a substantial obstacle for Pakistan where it is still perceived to be widespread and systemic. Petty corruption in the form of bribery is prevalent in law enforcement, procurement and the provision of public services. The judiciary is not seen as independent and considered to be shielding corrupt political practices from prosecution. Various efforts over the past years have tried to develop institutional mechanisms to address these problems. A National Anti-Corruption Strategy, which was developed in 2002, offers a comprehensive plan for tackling corruption. The executing agency, the National Accountability Bureau (NAB), is endowed with comprehensive powers to investigate and prosecute cases. However, a lack of political will, coupled with the perceived co-option of the judiciary and the arbitrariness of many anti-corruption proceedings, are major obstacles.
* Causes of corruption
Dismal performance of Institutions:
The scale of government-condoned corruption in public-sector enterprises such as Pakistan Steel Mills, Railways and PIA is unprecedented, pushing them to the verge of bankruptcy. It is no wonder the losses in the power sector and other public-sector enterprises have now come close to the country`s defense budget. Poor governance:
The burgeoning culture of corruption is also manifested in the low number of parliamentarians and cabinet ministers paying income tax. It is most appalling that almost 70 per cent of Pakistani politicians, some of them among the country`s richest people, allegedly do not pay income tax. They include the president and senior members of the ruling coalition. We should ask whether any of these tax evaders would be able to hold public offices in any other country. Absence of political will:
The biggest drawbacks in our national development have been political instability. So-called leaders and opportunists joined hands with the civil-military bureaucracy to retain powers and loot the country of its resources with both hands. Lack of effective accountability:
A major reason for corruption to thrive is the lack of accountability and failure of law enforcement. Anti-corruption laws have mostly been used as a tool for political patronage or victimization. lack of accountability promotes corruption rampantly. Since we do not have any organized institution, which can be reliable, corrupt one feel secure without check and malpractice at large. Immoral and un-Islamic social customs:
Our immoral and un-Islamic social customs play an important role in boost corruption. In order to fulfill unreasonable needs of customs of families, officials go out of the way to earn money. Instead of practicing austerity in their...