Philippine Constitution

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INTRODUCTION
It is the systematic study of the state & government
The word political came from the Greek word
“polis” meaning city equivalent to a sovereign state
It is the basic knowledge & understanding of the state & the principles & ideas which underlie its organization & activities

It is primarily concerned with the association of human beings in a body politic or a political community

Fields of political science:
1. Political Theory
2. Public Law
3. Government
4. Comparative Government
5. International Relations
6. Public Administration
7. Public Policy
8. Political Dynamics
9. Government & Business
10. Legislature
Geopolitics

Values & Uses of Political Science:
1. Awareness of the importance & impact of government on people’s lives 2. Education for citizenship
3. Development of civic values
4. Preparation for various careers & professions
The Concept of Governance
1. Transparency of government
2. Simplicity of procedures
3. Responsibility
4. Fight against corruption
5. Individual freedom & collective expression
6. An independent judicial system

Concepts of State & Government

State is a community of persons more or less numerous , permanently occupying a definite portion of territory , having a government of their own to which a great body of inhabitants render obedience & enjoying freedom from external control

Elements of the State:
1. People
2. Territory
3. Government
4. Sovereignty

Origin of States
1. Divine right theory
2. Necessity or force theory
3. Paternalistic theory
4. Rousseau’s Social Contract Theory
5. Hobbes’ Social Contract Theory
6. Locke’s Social Contract Theory
7. Instinctive Theory
8. Economic Theory
9. Historical or Evolutionary Theory

State Distinguished from Nation
1. A state is a political concept, while a nation an ethnic concept 2. A state is not subject to external control while a nation may or may not be independent from external control 3. A single state may consist of one or more nations or peoples , a single nation maybe made up of several states

State Distinguished from Government
1. They are usually regarded as identical.
2. The government is only the agency through which the state expresses its will 3. A state cannot exist without a government
4. It is possible to have a government without a state
a. Purpose & Necessity of Government
5. Advancement of the public welfare: government exists for the welfare of the people 6. Consequence of absence: without an organized structure of government anarchy & disorder & a general feeling of fear & insecurity will prevail in society Functions of Government

Three basic functions of government:
1. Rule making
2. Rule adjudication
3. Rule execution
According to Burns the following are the two functions of government: 1. Administration
2. Maintenance of authority

Inherent Rights of the State
1. Right of existence
2. Right to self-preservation
3. Right to property & domain
4. Right of jurisdiction
5. Right of legation

Fundamental Powers of the State
1. Power of eminent Domain
2. Police power
3. Power of taxation

Forms of Government
A. As to the number of persons exercising sovereign powers: 1. Monarchy
a. Absolute
b. Limited
2. Aristocracy: exercised by a few privileged class
3. Democracy: exercised by a majority of the people
Authoritarianism is a political system that rests more on the obedience of the citizens than upon their consent: 1. Communist state
2. One-Party system
3. Military state
4. Dynastic or court regime
5. Theocratic State

Forms of Government
B. As to the extent of powers exercised by the central or national powers: 1. Unitary government: control of national & local affairs exercised by the national or central government 2. Federal : powers of government divided: one for national, the other for...
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