Pepsico Organizational Behavior Project

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I. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Motivation:
Motivation is defined as the process of Internal and external factors that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors like committed to a job, role, or to make an effort to attain a goal, has been considered as one of the most frequently studied topic in the organizational science and the critical area in the Organization Behavior. Motivation consist of three major components: 1st is direction which is the road the motivator use to attain his goal, 2nd is the intensity that is noticed by the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing his goal, 3rd last is Persistence which is the continuity of the effort toward the goal. Early studies on motivation were written between the end of 19th and beginning of 20th centuries as they were focused more on intrinsic motivations that arise from within the individual. They suggested that human are programmed to behave in specific way according to the behavioral cues that they were exposed to. Right after that many studies took different approaches and other explanations for human motivation. Now the main motivation theories are classified into 2 main schools: 1ST ARE THE CONTENT/EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:

They are considered as the earliest theories of motivation. They are also focusing on internal factors that energize behavior. As well as, called needs theories, because they are concentrates and focus on the importance of determining 'what' motivates individuals. Overall when it comes to work environment these theories have the greatest impact on management but academically they are the least accepted one. Example of early motivation theories are Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Theory X and Theory Y, McClelland’s Need , Herzberg’s' Two Factor Theory, and ERG Theory

* Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
It is considered as the most widely known theory of motivation and was made by American Abraham Maslow in the 1940s and 1950s. It basically about that every human has Hierarchy of five needs: Physiological, Safety, Social which considered as the lower-order need Esteem, and Self-actualization that are considered as the higher-order needs. * Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor proposed that every manager has one of two assumptions about their employees and he adapt his managing approach based on it. These assumptions are either They X that assume employees are lazy dislike work, responsibility who only want the lower-order needs and must be coerced to perform or Theory Y that assume the employees like work, creative and seek responsibility and the higher-order needs. * Mcclelland’s Need Theory

McClelland's model argues that all people have these three needs which are achievement, power, and affiliation. * Herzberg’s' Two factor Theory
Herzberg's theory relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and relate extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. 2nd THE COGNITIVE/CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION: Which are based on early cognitive theories, which posit that behavior is the result of conscious decision-making processes are concerned with determining how individual behavior is energized, directed, and maintained in the specifically willed and self-directed human cognitive processes. The main contemporary theories of motivation are: expectancy theory, equity theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory.

* Reinforcement Theory
This theory of motivation is proposed by BF Skinner. It’s mainly about that individual’s behavior is a function of its consequences that is based on “law of effect So that individual’s behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, but individual’s behavior with negative consequences tends to be avoided. * Expectancy Theory

This theory was applied by Victor Vrooms in 1960 based on Kurt Kewub and Edward Tiknab researches in 1930. It suggests that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depend on the strength of an expectation that...
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