Organizational Behaviour - Motivation

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Chapter 6 Motivation

Slid e 6-1

Learning Outcomes
1. 2.

3.

4.

What is motivation? What is expectancy theory, and what are the three beliefs that help determine how work effort is directed? What role do needs play? What is goal setting theory? What two qualities make goals strong predictors of task performance? How and when do those effects occur? What does it mean for rewards to be “equitable,” and how are perceptions of equity determined? How do employees respond when they feel a sense of inequity? Slid e 6-2

Learning Outcomes, Cont’d
What is psychological empowerment? What four beliefs help create a sense of empowerment among employees? 6. How does motivation affect job performance and organizational commitment? 7. What steps can organizations take to increase employee motivation? 5.

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What is Motivation?
Motivation is defined as a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence. ◦ Motivation is a critical consideration because job performance is largely a function of two factors: motivation and ability.

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Motivation and Effort

Adapted from Figure 6-1

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Discussion Questions
What makes you decide to direct your effort to work assignments rather than taking a break or wasting time? What makes you decide to be a “good citizen” by helping out a colleague or another student?

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Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses. ◦ Employee behaviour is directed toward pleasure and away from pain or, more generally, toward certain outcomes and away from others.

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Expectancy Theory

Figure 6-2

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Expectancy Theory, Cont’d
Expectancy represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task. ◦ Expectancy is a subjective probability, ranging from 0 to 1 that a specific amount of effort will result in a specific level of performance (abbreviated E → P).

Self-efficacy is defined as the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviours required for task success. ◦ Past accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, emotional cues Slid e 6-9

Sources of Self-Efficacy

Figure 6-3

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Expectancy Theory, Cont’d
Instrumentality represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcome(s). Instrumentality is a set of subjective probabilities, each ranging from 0 to 1 that successful performance will bring a set of outcomes (abbreviated P → O). Valence reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance (abbreviated V). ◦ Can be positive, negative, or zero

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Expectancy Theory, Cont’d
What exactly makes some outcomes more “positively valenced” than others? In general, outcomes are deemed more attractive when they help satisfy needs. ◦ Needs can be defined as cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences. Slid e 612

Commonly Studied Needs in OB

Table 6-1

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Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation – desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance. Intrinsic motivation - desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own reward. ◦ Together, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation represent an employee’s “total motivation” level

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Extrinsic and Intrinsic Outcomes
EXTRINSIC OUTCOMES Pay Bonuses Promotions
Table 6-2

INTRINSIC OUTCOMES Employment Interestingness Accomplishment Knowledge gain Skill development Personal expression (Lack of) Boredom (Lack of) Anxiety (Lack of) Frustration

Benefits and perks Spot awards Praise Job security...
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