Motivating Employees

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BUS 520 Week 4, Chapter 6: Motivating Employees
Slide #Slide Title/ TopicSlide text/Narration
1IntroductionWelcome to Leadership and Organizational Behavior. In this lesson, we will discuss Motivating Employees.

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2ObjectivesUpon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify the key factors affecting individual motivation and explain the application of a variety of motivational theories and job design considerations.

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3OverviewIn this lecture we will discuss the following topics:

Motivational processes;
Satisfying human needs;
Designing jobs;
Influencing performance expectations; and
Ensuring equity.

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4Motivational ProcessesAttracting and retaining employees are major factors in today’s businesses. Motivation is an important part of this. There are four basic elements of motivation – One, meeting basic human needs, Two, Designing jobs that motivate individuals, a third is enhancing the belief that desired rewards can be achieved and fourth, treating individuals equitably.

Motivation is the forces within a person or acted upon a person that cause that person to behave in a specific, goal-directed manner. Motivation is not the same as performance and is different for everyone.

To improve motivation, organizations need to attract and encourage employees to remain with them, allow individuals to perform their tasks, and stimulate individuals to go beyond routine.

Motivation affects performance. Individuals need to be motivated to complete a task or do a job. They must also have the ability to do that job. Ability can be their natural talents or learned skills. Both ability and motivation affect performance.

Motivation is often seen in a process. That process starts with identification of needs. Needs are defined as the deficiencies that a person experiences at a particular time. Needs can be psychological, physiological or social. Next, a way to satisfy those needs is sought out. For example of a need is psychological, like the need for recognition, an employee may feel tension to do something about that need. He may make an effort to fulfill that need and gain that recognition, by setting a goal. The goal may be to work longer hours, to highlight his accomplishments or what ever allows for more recognition. His boss may recognize him with a raise or promotion and he feels he has received that recognition. He can then reassess his needs and the process starts again. However, this is not to say that the process is that clear and straightforward every time. People have different motivations and needs and go through the process in different ways. This is simply a general model showing the process.

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5Satisfying Human NeedsIndividuals have a very complex set of needs. These are often arranged in a hierarchy made famous by Maslow. The basic assumptions of this hierarchy are that individuals are always striving to satisfy some need, needs are very complex and are rarely just a single need at a single time, lower level needs must be satisfied before moving to a higher level need, and there are more ways of satisfying higher level needs. There are five types of needs.

The first, which must be satisfied before other needs can be addressed are, physiological needs. These include things like hunger, thirst, and the need for shelter and air. Once these needs are met other needs emerge. They can be of the second type, security needs. These are the desire for safety, stability and absence of pain, threat, or illness. The third type is affiliation needs, such as friendship, love, and belonging. Next up the hierarchy are esteem needs. These are the desire for feelings of achievement, self-worth, and recognition or respect. The highest level of needs is self-actualization needs. Realizing full potential and becoming all that...
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