Motivating Organizational Members REVIEW QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTED ANSWERS
1. (Learning Objective 1) Define motivation. Motivation refers to the forces, either internal or external to a person, that act as inducements or that influence action to do something.
2. (Learning Objective 1) Explain how motivation is related to performance by describing the model M x A = P. Although the process of motivation is complex, organizations are primarily concerned with the relationship between motivation and performance, as implied by the formula shown above, where M refers to motivation, A refers to ability, and P refers to performance. The relationships in the formula can be explained through the following example. Suppose you are motivated to perform well as a computer analyst. Your performance as a computer analyst is a function of your (1) motivation and (2) ability to do the job. One is not enough. You must have both motivation and ability to perform.
3. (Learning Objective 2) How do needs-based models differ from process models of motivation? Needs-based models emphasize specific human needs, or the factors within a person that energize, direct, and stop behavior. Approaches based on needs explain motivation primarily as a phenomenon that occurs intrinsically, or within an individual. They describe what things motivate people. Process models take a more dynamic view of motivation; they focus on understanding the thought or cognitive processes that take place within the individuals mind and act to affect behavior. They describe how things motivate people.
4. (Learning Objective 3) Clarify hygiene and motivator factors in the two-factor model of motivation. How is satisfaction involved in the model? Motivator factors are related to job content, or what people actually do in their work, and are associated with an individuals positive feelings about the job. Motivator factors include the work itself, recognition, advancement, achievement, and responsibility. Hygiene factors are associated with the job context, or the environment in which the job is performed. Company policy and administration, supervision, salary, working conditions, and interpersonal relationships are examples of hygiene factors. In terms of satisfaction, motivator factors lead to satisfaction. Hygiene factors do not lead to satisfaction, they only prevent dissatisfaction.
5. (Learning Objective 3) Discuss the acquired-needs model of motivation and the three needs that are the basis for understanding the model. The acquired-needs model of motivation is a model focused on three relevant needs in the work environment: achievement, affiliation, and power. 221 Chapter 14: Motivating Organizational Members Need for Achievement: The drive to excel, accomplish challenging tasks, and achieve a standard of excellence. Need for Power: The need to influence and control ones environment; may involve either personal power or institutional power. Need for Affiliation: The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
6. (Learning Objective 4) If people experience inequity, what are they generally motivated to change? People who experience inequity tend to try to change the following things, basically in this order: Change work inputs either upward or downward to an equitable level. Change outcomes to restore equity. Psychologically distort comparisons. Change the comparison person he or she is using to another person. Leave the situation (e.g., quit the job or transfer to another department).
7. (Learning Objective 5) Describe how goal setting can help employees become motivated. Goal setting specifies the outcomes toward which individuals, groups, departments and organizations should work. With that in mind, people can more clearly see what they need to achieve. That should increase the motivation that people have to then achieve the goal.
8. (Learning Objective 5) For goal setting to be successful, what are the requirements...