Subdomain 317.1 – Organizational Behavior & Leadership Competency 317.1.1: Behavioral Influences Objective 317.1.1-06
Expectancy Theory focuses on the relationship between goal achievement and job performance. In the realm of job performance it’s the idea that people are more willing to work harder and be more productive in their respective line work if they believe that they will achieve the results expected, and if the financial and personal rewards are good enough. Expectancy theory is all about a person’s or groups mental process regarding choice, or choosing. This theory emphasizes the need for business to relate rewards directly to performance outcomes, and that the rewards that are provided to employees are not only deserved but also wanted by the employees. In the relationship of expectancy theory there are three key components Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valance.
Motivation is a product of the individual’s expectancy that a certain effort will lead to the intended performance. Under the governance of expectancy, the individual or group of individuals will make choices influencing their behavior based on estimates of how well the expected results of a given behavior are going to lead to the desired results. In order for the expectancy to be high, employees must feel that they have some level of control over the expected outcome of results. In the end motivation of employees is determined by the desirability of the outcome.
Instrumentality is basically the reward for performance or the belief that an individual will receive a desired outcome once the performance expectation is fulfilled. Results can be in the forms of pay increase, promotions, recognition or even the sense of accomplishment. Trust of employers and superiors is an important piece to instrumentality. It’s the trust that will allow employees to believe that they can trust their leader’s promises. Once the trust factor is established...
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