Four Main Types of Research Historical research - describes what was-mostly nonobtrusive Descriptive research - describes what is-mostly nonobtrusive Correlation research - makes comparisons, looking for trends or tendencies Experimental research - describes what will be - mostly obtrusive
Historical Research A systematic process of searching for information and fact to describe analyze or interpret the past Value-can provide prospective for decision making about current problems -issues are often better understood if we understand the historical perspective Sources-must have good backed sources to protect from criticism -most common sources are past records Descriptive Research Describes, interprets, and clarifies what in the present -often done with surveys -may be done by observation or an observational instrument Developmental Research is one common type of descriptive research which involves the study of changes in behavior over a period of time
Correlation Research The purpose is to find relationships between two or more variable so to: - Better understand the conditions and events that we encounter (what goes with what) - To predict future conditions and events. - Correlations do not show cause and effect Coefficients of Correlation -range from –1 to 1 -the farther the number is away from 0 the higher the correlation -a negative correlation suggest an inverse effect -a 1 or -1 shows a perfect correlation -a correlation of 0 indicates no relationship Experimental Research An experiment is a research situation where at least one independent variable, called the experimental variable, is deliberately manipulated or varied by the researcher. Variable –element or characteristic being studied Parameter-element that remains unchanged (age, number of subjects)
Evaluation of Sources Primary sources-original or first hand account of event or experience, persons involved, documents, records or relics Secondary sources-an account that is at least once removed -persons not involved directly with an event but has close knowledge (parents, relatives) -newspaper External Criticism -evaluates the validity of the document -who, when, where it was produced -is the document genuine, authentic -status of author (primary or secondary?) Internal Criticism-evaluates the meaning, accuracy and trustworthiness of the content (comes after external criticism) • Both external and internal criticism are important to establish validity.
Sampling Terms and Procedures Population-inclusive group defined by researcher Sample-representative subset of population -should contain essential elements of population Random Sampling-process of sampling which assures that any subject in the population has an equal probability of being in the sample Systematic counting-uses list to choose every nth person from the population Stratified Random-used when researcher believes the population has distinct subgroups Ex: population has 45% men, then we make sure sample is 45% men
Variables and Limitations Independent Variable-experimental or treatment variable (it is the cause) -what we are studying -it is what we are manipulating in our study Dependent Variable-is what is measured to assess the effects of the independent variable -it is thought to be dependant on the independent variable Delimitations-choices the...