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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

LEARNING OBJECTIVES


To explain the basic elements of research
     

Research patterns Variables Relations Hypothesis Ethics in social research Privacy



To explain sampling and sampling designs
The aims of sampling Population Sample designs  Sample size  Errors   



To explain data collection methods
Observational methods Survey research  Questionnaires  Qualitative research  Secondary data analysis  

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RESEARCH


Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable. Scientific methods consist of systematic observation, classification and interpretation of data.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH




Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions. ControlledReal life there are many factors that affect an outcome.  The concept of control implies that, in exploring causality in relation to two variables (factors), you set up your study in a way that minimizes the effects of other factors affecting the relationship.  This can be achieved to a large extent in the physical sciences (cookery, bakery), as most of the research is done in a laboratory. However, in the social sciences (Hospitality and Tourism) it is extremely difficult as research is carried out on issues related to human beings living in society, where such controls are not possible. Therefore in Hospitality and Tourism, as you cannot 4 control external factors, you attempt to quantify their impact. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH


Rigorous


you must be scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed to find answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified. Again, the degree of rigor varies markedly between the physical and social sciences and within the social sciences.



Systematic


This implies that the procedure adopted to undertake an investigation follow a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some procedures must follow others. 5

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH


Valid and verifiable

This concept implies that whatever you conclude on the basis of your findings is correct and can be verified by you and others. This means that any conclusion drawn are based upon hard evidence gathered from information collected from real life experiences or observations. Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The process of investigation must be foolproof and free from drawbacks. The process adopted and the procedures used must be able to withstand critical scrutiny



Empirical




Critical


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TYPES OF RESEARCH


Research can be classified from three perspectives:
1. 2. 3.

application of research study objectives in undertaking the research inquiry mode employed

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TYPES OF RESEARCH
1. Application:


From the point of view of application, there are two broad categories of research: pure research and  applied research.




Pure research involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but may or may not have practical application at the present time or in the future. The knowledge produced through pure research is sought in order to add to the existing body of research methods.

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TYPES OF RESEARCH


Applied research is done to solve specific, practical questions; for policy formulation, administration and understanding of a phenomenon. It can be exploratory, but is usually descriptive. It is almost always done on the basis of basic research. Applied research can be carried out by academic or industrial institutions. Often, an academic institution such as a university will have a specific applied research program funded by an industrial partner interested in that program.

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