It has been argued that if organizational decisions and managerial actions are deemed unfair or unjust, the affected employees experience feelings of anger, outrage and resentment; There is also evidence that disgruntled employees retaliate to Organizational Injustice, directly: e.g., by theft, vandalism and sabotage or indirectly by withdrawal and resistance behavior. Engaging in socially responsible behavior has been a great concern to leaders of Today’s organizations. Here again, OB specialists have sought to explain this behavior, and their efforts will be outlined in this research.
As a subject of philosophical interest, the study of justice dates back to the times of Plato and Socrates (Ryan, 1993). However, research on organizational justice started with Adams’ work on equity theory (Adams, 1963, 1965) and has progressed steadily over time. Greenberg (1990b) explained organizational justice as a literature “grown around attempts to describe and explain the role of fairness as a consideration in the workplace. Adams’ work led to a research period concentrating on fairness of pay or outcomes at work place (Deutsch, 1985). In other words, the equity theory emphasized the perceived fairness of outcomes, i.e., distributive fairness. Equity theory is based on the notions of relative deprivation and social comparison. Individuals in organizations are expected to compare their own input to output ratio to the ratio of a referent who could be the self considered at another point of time or others in the past, present, or expected future to determine the level of fairness. According to equity theory, when compared ratios are not equal, the individuals may perceive inequity and so may involve in behaviors meant to restore the cognitive perception of equality (they may modify their effort, or change their perceptions of inputs or outcomes). However, the focus of this research shifted to procedural justice: the perceived fairness of the process by which outcomes are determined /arrived at, because of inability of equity theory and distributive justice models to fully predict and explain peoples’ reactions to perceived injustice. This shift expanded the study of distributive justice, since research findings revealed that distribution of rewards was not always as important to individuals as the process by which they were allocated.
Organizational justice refers to “the just and ethical treatment of individuals within an Organization” organizational justice is “the term commonly used by organizational psychologists to refer to the just and fair manner in which organizations treat their employees”. The dictionary defines the word Justice as fairness (Popular Oxford New-Age Primary School Dictionary). However, in daily life, the term justice is used to mean “oughtness” or “righteousness”. In organizational sciences research, justice is considered to be socially constructed which means that an act is considered to be just if it is perceived so by the individuals on the basis of empirical research.
Corporate Social Responsibility, the forms it takes, and the nature of the relationship between responsible behavior and financial profitability.
Corporate social responsibility refers to business practices that adhere to ethical values, that comply with legal requirements, and that promote the betterment of individuals and the community at large. It’s most popular forms include making charitable contributions to the community, preserving the environment, investing in a socially responsible manner, and promoting the welfare of employees. Generally, research shows that socially responsible companies tend to be more profitable than companies that are less socially responsible. This reflects the virtuous circle, the tendency for successful companies to be socially responsible because they can afford to do so, which in turn, helps their chances of being even more financially...