Organizational Behaviour Glossary

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360 degree feedback: Performance appraisal that uses the input of superiors, subordinates, peers, and clients or customers of the appraised individual. Accommodating: A conflict management style in which one cooperates with the other party while not asserting one's own interest group members. Attitude: A fairly stable emotional tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Attribution: The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain peoples' behavior. Avoiding: A conflict management style characterized by low assertiveness of one's own interests and low cooperation with the other party. Benchmarking: A systematic process for examining the products, services, and work processes of firms that are recognized as illustrating the best practices for organizational improvement. Body language: Nonverbal communication by means of a sender's bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location. Brainstorming: An attempt to increase the number of creative solution alternatives to problems by focusing on idea generation rather than evaluation. Bureaucracy: Max Weber's ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence. Burnout: Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment among those who work with people. Career: An evolving sequence of work activities and positions that individuals experience over time as well as the associated attitudes, knowledge, and competencies that develop throughout one's life. Central traits: Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver. Chain of command: Lines of authority and formal reporting relationship. Change: The implementation of a program or plan to move an organization and/or its members to a more satisfactory state. Change agents: Experts in the application of behavioral science knowledge to organizational diagnosis and change. Classical viewpoint: An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making. Coercive power: Power derived from the use of punishment and threat. Cognitive biases: Tendencies to acquire and process information in an error-prone way. Cognitive dissonance: A feeling of tension experienced when certain cognitions are contradictory or inconsistent with each other. Collaborating: A conflict management style that maximizes both assertiveness and cooperation. Compensation: Applying one's skills in a particular area to make up for failure in another area. Competing: A conflict management style that maximizes assertiveness and minimizes cooperation. Compliance: Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment. Compromise: A conflict management style that combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation. Confirmation bias: The tendency to seek out information that conforms to one's own definition of or solution to a problem. Conflict stimulation: A strategy of increasing conflict in order to motivate change. Congruence: A condition in which a person's words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the same message. Contingency approach: An approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation. Contingency theory: Fred Fiedler's theory that states that the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent upon how favorable the situation is for exerting influence. Contrast effects.

Previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewer's perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences between applicants. Control group.
A group of research subjects who have not been...
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