ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PROJECT
TOPIC: EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
SUBMITTED TO: Dr. AMAN AGARWAL
SUBMITTED BY: UPASANA BANERJEE
ROLL NO: FT-(IB)-11-354 BATCH: 2011-2013.
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
Motivation may be defined as the process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. However, high intensity is unlikely to lead to favourable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channelled in a direction that benefits the organization. Therefore, we have to consider the quality of effort as well as its intensity. Effort that is directed toward, and consistent with, the organization’s goals is the kind of effort that we should be seeking. Finally, motivation has a persistence dimension. This is a measure of how long a person can maintain effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in class. Therefore, motivation can be defined as a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behaviour – especially human behaviour. These reasons may include a drive, a need, a desire to achieve a goal, a state of being, or an ideal. In human beings, motivation involves both conscious and subconscious drives. It’s my belief that we all have one ultimate motive in common. This motive drives everything we think, everything we feel, and everything we do – from the time we wake up in the morning until we go to sleep at night.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS:
Most well-known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. He hypothesized that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs. They are as follows:
* PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS:
It includes hunger, thirst, air to breathe, and other bodily needs. * SAFETY NEEDS:
It includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. * SOCIAL NEEDS:
It includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
* ESTEEM NEEDS:
It includes internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention. * SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS:
It includes the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfilment.
MOTIVATION IN WORKPLACE:
Many business managers today are not aware of the effects that motivation can (and does) have on their business, and it is therefore important they learn and understand the factors that determine positive motivation in the workplace. The size of a local business is irrelevant: whether it is trying to get the best out of fifty of its staff or just one, everyone needs some form of motivation. Motivation is something that is approached differently by different business and the responsibility of its integration lies with all immediate supervisors of staff. However, it is the business owner who must initiate motivation as a strategy to attain corporate goal. “Motivation in workplace is one of the greatest challenges for managers. High levels of motivation are directly connected to high levels of productivity. Increasing productivity is always a major issue for managers and is associated with employees who see no value in the work that they do or see no reason to achieve the goals set out from them (“incentives”). Therefore, understanding the role that motivation, both internal and external, can play in the workplace is crucial to creating a work environment in which all can succeed and thrive. Unfortunately, increasing motivation can be a tricky endeavour,...
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