Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibilities of gain or reward. Employee work motivation and performance will be analyzed from the perspective of motivation theory as the central for the analysis. Motivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization.
Employee motivation is one of the major issues faced by every organization. This study also focuses on the employee motivation among the employees of PepsiCo India Holdings (P) Ltd, Madurai. PepsiCo Madurai plant consists of totally 69 employees. They are currently adapting many financial and non-financial motivation schemes. But they could find only marginal increase in the motivational level that is reflected in performance and productivity. Management’s basic job is the effective utilization of human resources for achievements of organizational objectives. The personnel management is concerned with organizing human resources in such a way to get maximum output to the enterprise and to develop the talent of people at work to the fullest satisfaction. The Madurai branch faces tough competition with other branches and as well as with other competitors as a whole. The branch was under pressure to meet the demands which is quoted high than the last year. It is a single line production unit which needs full effort of the employees to attain the organizational goal. The HR team of the organization currently provides many motivation schemes but they are not sure whether they have concentrated all the factors that affect the level of motivation. To identify the various factors that affect the employee motivation, this study has been carried out in the organization. The data needed for the study has been collected from the employees through questionnaires. Analysis and interpretation has been done by using the statistical tools and data’s are presented through tables and charts.
1.2 AN OVERVIEW OF MOTIVATION THEORIES
As this study focuses on identifying the factors that motivate the employees, the central focus for this study is the motivation theories. The various extracts from the motivation theories that support our study is given below. The motivation process consists of the following stages:
1. Identification of need
3. Course of action
4. Result –Positive/Negative
5. Feed back
Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra, 1979). Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Mcclelland’s Achievement Need Theory, Behavior Modification theory; Abraham H Mallows need hierarchy or Deficient theory of motivation. J.S. Adam’s Equity Theory, Vrooms Expectation Theory, Two factor Theory.
1.2.1 McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory.
According to McClelland’s there are three types of needs;
Need for Achievement (n Ach);
This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons who satisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire for improvement and lack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts. They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easily achievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement.
Need for Power (n Pow)
It is the desire to control the behavior of the other people and to manipulate the surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style, while it negative application tends autocratic style.
Need for affiliation (n Aff)
It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in formation of informal groups or social circle....