Motivation Concept of an Organizational Behavior

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Chapter 6
Early Theories of motivation
Definition of Motivation

Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal.

Three key elements

Intensity – how hard a person tries.

Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals.

Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort.

Early Theories of Motivation
These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
McClelland’s Theory of Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow believed that to motivate someone, you had to understand which level of the hierarchy the person was on, and fill those needs or those on the levels above.

There is a hierarchy of five needs; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.

Self-Actualization: highest need level; need to fulfill oneself; to grow and use abilities to fullest and most creative extent

Esteem: need for esteem of others; respect, prestige, recognition, need for self esteem, personal sense of competence, mastery. ◦Social: need for love, affection, sense of belongingness in one’s relationships with other persons.Safety: need for security, protection, and stability in the physical and interpersonal events of day-to-day life. ◦Physiological: most basic of all human needs; need for biological maintenance; need for food, water, and sustenance.

Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. ◦Must move in hierarchical order.

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor added to the motivation work done in the 1950’s and developed the theory...
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