Motivation Concept of an Organizational Behavior

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Chapter 6
MOTIVATION CONCEPT
Early Theories of motivation
Definition of Motivation

Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal.

Three key elements

Intensity – how hard a person tries.

Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals.

Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort.

Early Theories of Motivation
These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
McClelland’s Theory of Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow believed that to motivate someone, you had to understand which level of the hierarchy the person was on, and fill those needs or those on the levels above.

There is a hierarchy of five needs; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.

Self-Actualization: highest need level; need to fulfill oneself; to grow and use abilities to fullest and most creative extent

Esteem: need for esteem of others; respect, prestige, recognition, need for self esteem, personal sense of competence, mastery. ◦Social: need for love, affection, sense of belongingness in one’s relationships with other persons.Safety: need for security, protection, and stability in the physical and interpersonal events of day-to-day life. ◦Physiological: most basic of all human needs; need for biological maintenance; need for food, water, and sustenance.

Assumptions
Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. ◦Must move in hierarchical order.

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor added to the motivation work done in the 1950’s and developed the theory called Theory X, Theory Y. He believed that there are two distinct views of human beings that managers hold.  The Theory X view is basically negative and believes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid responsibility. The Theory Y view is in contrast to X and believes that workers tend to be self-directed, enjoy work, and accept responsibility. Managers will modify their behavior toward employees based on what view they hold about them.

Theory X managers operate under four assumptions (Robbins and Judge, 189): Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.

On the other hand, we have the positive Theory Y managers, who operate under these four assumptions (Robbins and Judge, 189): Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory is another one of the earlier developed theories. This theory sets forth that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate ideas which are Hygiene factor and Motivator factor Hygiene factors are based on the need to for a business to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they can cause dissatisfaction with work.

Motivator factors are based on an individual's need for personal...
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