Organisational behaviour is the study of individual and group dynamics in an organisational setting, as well as the nature of the organisations themselves. It examines employee behaviour, decisions, perceptions and responses. Whenever people interact in organisations, many factors come into play. Individual behaviours such as task behaviour, organisational citizenship, counterproductive work behaviours, joining and staying with the organisation, and work attendance (McShane, Olekalns and Travaglione, 2010), are the five main types of behaviours that employees display. This essay will be focusing on two of the above behaviours, organizational citizenship (OCB) and counterproductive work behaviour (CWB).
Organisational Citizenship Behaviour
Organ (1988) defines OCB as “behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognised by the formal reward system, and that in aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization......the behaviour is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description......the behaviour is a matter of personal choice”. This view is supported by Allison, Dryer and Voss (2001) who refers to OCB as an “employees’ extra-role behaviour, that is, behaviour that is voluntary and extends beyond normal role expectations.” OCB describes the type of behaviour when employees go beyond their job scope to improve the overall performance of the organisation. Examples are, being punctual, helping others, making suggestions to improve things and not wasting time at work (Schnake, 1991). OCB can be categorised into five types: Altruism, Civic Virtue, Conscientiousness, Courtesy and Sportsmanship (Allison, Dryer and Voss, 2001). Altruism is behaviour that practices unselfish acts for the welfare of others. Civic Virtue can be described as a voluntary participation in support of the company’s best interest. Conscientiousness is the act of going well beyond one’s required effort. Courtesy is the act of thoughtfulness and consideration to prevent work-related problems for others. Sportsmanship is the willingness to accept and tolerate inevitable work problems with a positive attitude. An employee is only considered a good organisational citizen when she possesses the above traits.
OCB has been conventionally linked to job satisfaction, and is the main factor that led to job performance. Jacobs and Solomon (1977) concluded that the correlations between job satisfaction and job performance would be higher in jobs where performance was rewarded than in jobs where it was not. Under such conditions, employees who perform well will be rewarded and rewards should lead to higher job satisfaction. This is similar to the results gathered by Caldwell and O’Reily (1990), matching employee abilities to job requirements enhances job performance. They also found that matching employee abilities to job requirements enhances job satisfaction, as well. It is also likely that job satisfaction is caused by job performance, and rewards given to employees who perform well.
There are many other views as to what encourages OCB. Moorman (1991) suggested that fairness from supervisors highly influences OCB; whether or not employees feel organisational decisions are made fairly and if it has the necessary employees’ input (procedural justice). Role perceptions including role ambiguity and role conflict are another view as to what influences OCB. Both role ambiguity and role conflicts are found to be negatively related to OCB. On the other hand, role clarity and role facilitation are positively related (Podsakoff, 200). Since both role ambiguity and role conflict are known to affect employee satisfaction, and satisfaction is related to OCB, it is likely that at least a portion of the relationship between ambiguity, conflict and OCBs is resolved by satisfaction.
Counterproductive Work Behaviour
The opposite of organisational citizenship is counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). They...