Faculty of Business Administration, Economics and Political Science
Exploring OCB and its variables, its evaluation and implementation: The case of Carrefour Egypt A Dissertation submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the award of B.A. in Business Administration, Human Resources Management Specialization 2008/09
By Seif Mamdouh Ezzeldin
ID: 100558 Honours Level – Class of 05/06
Under the Supervision of
Dr. Hadia FakhrElDin
Organisational Citizenship Behaviour has not been dedicated enough research. The topic is quite new to the HR professionals and challenging. It is also challenging to conduct research on the topic as it has been suggested that OCB is inconsistent and has been stated as an ill-defined science. This paper analysis previous literature done on OCB in parallel with conducting field research in a large multinational in Egypt – in attempt to measure their employees’ OCB and bring the suggested evaluation method into practice. It has been concluded that OCB is not consistent among all employees. However, guidelines to effective evaluate it across different employees have been suggested. Adding to this, the questionnaires in this paper provides a jumpstart for future researchers who wish to evaluate the level of OCB in an organisation.
1. Introduction 1.1 Research questions 1.2 Research aims 1.3 Research Methodology 2- Literature review 2.1 Definition and history of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour 2.2 Variables of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour 2.3 Organisational Citizenship Behaviour can be controllable 2.4 Organisational Citizenship Behaviour examination is challenging 2.4.1 Clarifying in and out role conduct 2.5 Types of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour 2.6 Literature Summary 3. Aims and methodology 3.1 Aims 3.2 Methodology 3.2.1 Questionnaire (1) 3.2.2 Questionnaire (2) 3.3 The research place 3.4 Advantages and limitation of the methodology adapted 4. Data analysis 4.1 Questionnaire (1) 4.1.1 Highest ranking agreed-with statements (above 66.6 %) 4.2 Questionnaire (2) 4.2.1 Most agreed upon as in-role (above 66.6 %) 5. Conclusion 5.1 Key aims and findings 5.2 Limitation of the study 5.3 Directions for future research References Appendix 4 8 9 10 12 12 14 17 19 20 21 25 27 27 30 31 33 34 35 37 37 40 42 46 48 48 51 52 53 55
International trade, European Union, labour mobility, ease of cross border transportation, competition, globalisation, desire to a better living standard and striving for achievement are all factors to employees shifting jobs. Unlike salaries, working conditions, job descriptions and appraisals, these factors cannot be controlled by an organisation. This has all increased interest in Human Resources Management (HRM), careers and Organisational Behaviours (OB) as sciences. An organisation can retain an employee who is not satisfied with his pay by increasing the salary. However, it cannot retain an employee who does not feel committed to the organisation or does not actually feel the organisation is holding on to him/her or treating him as a valued asset; as human resources of organisations were recently categorised as assets since they contribute, develop, control, manage and add value all other different assets (Bisson & Branscombe, 2008) The external factors listed are usually considered threats to an organisation as it is always in fear of losing its human resources. Imagine an organisation purchasing very expensive high-tech machines that generated a lot of profit giving it up to a competitor. The consequences are more or less the same if those high-tech machines were top performing employees who may need stronger motivation than money or benefits. The motivation then comes from a newer HR term called Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). One of the characteristics of being a citizen is being committed (to the norms, cultures, behaviours, attitudes and...