Evaluating Organizational Efficiency and Success through Employee Performance In Israeli Public Management
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a unique aspect of individual activity at work, first mentioned in the early 1980s. According to Organ's (1988) definition, It represents "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization" (p.4). This special behavior has become a lively research field investigated by organizational sociologists, psychologists, and management researchers. However, whereas most of the studies appear to deal with the phenomenon from a behavioral/functional perspective the natural orientation of citizenship to the political science arena is overlooked.
Two main facets of OCB are mentioned in previous studies: (1) OCB altruistic, and (2) OCB compliance. Whereas altruism appears to represent the help to specific persons, generalized compliance is a factor defined by a more impersonal sort of conscientiousness. It implies more of a "good soldier" or "good citizen" syndrome of doing things that are "right and proper", but doing them for the sake of the system rather than for specific persons. In the view of Smith et al. (1983), the two elements represent distinct classes of citizenship. This study tries to identify the main variables that can explain both dimensions of OCB from the two perspectives mentioned before. It uses studies mentioned in relevant management literature and also by studies dealing with citizenship from a political point of view. The political aspect of citizenship consists of three elements: (1) obedience; (2) loyalty, and; (3) participation. Only the last two will have a significant implication in this study because they represent the informal behavior of "good citizens."...