Online Biology Lab Report

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  • Topic: Animal, Ordovician, Larva
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Online Biology Lab Report
Evolution
Name______

A. Natural Selection

1. Record the number of beetles present in each of the three generations from the lab website.

Generation|Orange Beetles|Green Beetles|
1st Generation|3|13|
Later Generation|6|10|
Last Generation|16|0|

2. Nature selected for the _______orange__________ beetles.

3. Nature selected against the______green________ beetles.

B. Speciation

1. Why were wasp species A and B no longer able to mate with each other after their populations were isolated from each other? Since there was a barrier between the two populations, a mutation occurred in population B. This was a positive and dominant mutation that caused all of population B to evolve over time. By this time, population B has evolved into a new species and the two groups are now too different to mate with each other.

2. Explain how the two species of butterflies may have evolved. Perhaps the two species were separated geographically and over time evolved the features and colors they have now to better adapt and survive in their environment.

C. Fossil Record

Ancient Time|Plant and Animal Life|Millions of Years Ago|
Pleistocene Epoch of the Cenozoic Era|Many species of Pleistocene conifers, mosses, flowering plants, insects, mollusks, birds, mammals, and others survive to this day. This period was also known for many large mammals such as mammoths and their cousins the mastodons[->0], long horned bison, saber-toothed cats, giant ground sloths, and many other large mammals including humans.|2.6 million to 11,700 years ago| Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era|Dinosaurs dominated the land fauna but the Jurassic also saw the origination of the first birds. Also a lot of sea life such as modern looking sharks and rays and giant marine crocodiles. |199.6 to 145.5 million years ago| Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era|Diverse marine invertebrates, including graptolites, trilobites, brachiopods, and the conodonts. Plus red and green algae, primitive fish, cephalopods, corals, crinoids, and gastropods.|488.3 to 443.7 million years ago| Precambrian Time|Stromatolites and bacteria microfossils. Almost all life was bacterial.|4600 to 542 million years ago| 1. Describe the plant and animal life for the ancient times listed below. Also record how long ago each occurred.

2. Complete the following table for fossils.

Fossil|Era|Period|Age (MYA*)|
Saber-toothed Cat|Cenozoic|Quaternary|2.6|
Diplodocus|Mesozoic|Jurassic|199.6|
Eurypterid|Paleozoic|Silurian|443.7|
Triceratops|Mesozoic|Cretaceous|145.5|
Amonoid|Paleozoic|Devonian|416|
T. rex|Mesozoic|Cretaceous|145.5|
Fish|Mesozoic|Cretaceous|145.5|
Fern|Paleozoic|Carboniferous|359.2|
Trilobite A|Paleozoic|Cambrian|542|
Trilobite B|Paleozoic|Ordovician|488.3|
Trilobite C|Paleozoic|Devonian|416|

*Millions of Yeas Ago

D. Comparative Anatomy

1. Identify the following on the mammal skeleton.

Skull -1
Vertebrae -2
Pectoral Girdle -4
Pelvic Girdle -5
Tail -3
2. Compare the anatomy of the nine pair of animal skeletons.

Specimen Pair|Specimen A|Specimen B|Similarities and Differences| Pair 1||||
Pair 2||||
Pair 3||||
Pair 4||||
Pair 5||||
Pair 6||||
Pair 7||||
Pair 8||||
Pair 9||||

3. Compare the anatomy of ten pair of animal skulls.

Skull Pair|Specimen A|Specimen B|Similarities and Differences| Pair 1||||
Pair 2||||
Pair 3||||
Pair 4||||
Pair 5||||
Pair 6||||
Pair 7||||
Pair 8||||
Pair 9||||
Pair 10||||

E. Patterns of Development
1. Why do all vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) have embryos that look so much alike?

2. Why do a squid, octopus, clam, oyster, and earthworm all have a similar larval stage? (Trochophore larva)

3. Why do insect larvae look so similar?

F. Biochemistry

1. Proteins.
Use the table below to answer the following:
1): Which organism below is the most distantly...
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