Values : According to Milton Rokeach 1973, Values represent basic convictions that 'a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence'.
Value system : A hierachy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity Types of values include ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (political, religious) values, social values, and aesthetic values.
Importance of Values
Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation and behaviors of individuals and cultures. Values are relatively stable and enduring . If we know an individual’s values, we are better able to predict a behavior in a particular situation. Influence our perception of the world around us.
Represent interpretations of 'right' and 'wrong'.
Imply that some behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others Values differ between generations. Values differ between regions. Values differ between cultures.
Source of our Value Systems: A significant portion is genetically determined. Other factors include national culture, parents, teachers, friends, and similar environmental influences. Values can be divided into the following:
Terminal values: Desirable end-state that a person hopes to achieve during his/her lifetime eg: family security, self respect, comfortable life etc. Instrumental Values: Means of achieving these terminal values eg: ambition, honesty, courage etc So we can summarize by saying that values, morals, and behaviors form our attitudes, either for good or bad. Once we have a certain attitude, it takes concerted effort on ours or someone else's part to change it.
Critical evaluation of “Allport – Vernon” classification of values. The Allport-Vernon Study of Values (1931) categorizes values into six major types as...