Nursing Theory

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Chapter 15 –part B p. 333 (Cameron)
Motivation theories includeAchievement-motivation theory
Expectancy theory
Equity theory
Motivation theories are derived predominantly from the work of:Abraham Maslow (a psychologist) Achievement-motivation theory

developed by:


Atkinson, McClelland, and Veroff

Aspects of personality characteristics and proposes 3 forms of motivation/needs in work situations (achievement, power, affiliation) Individuals are not as concerned with the rewards of achievement as they are with the actual achievement are:Achievement (high need achievement)

Expectancy theory

Major concept

In 1964 –Vroom decided to add the concept of expectancy, instrumentality & valence to motivation

Expectancy is defined as

Instrumentality describes

Valance is

In Short, the Expectancy Theory states thatDeveloped by Victor Vroom in 1960s

The effect of ability and motivation on performance
Performance = ability X motivation

Performance = expectancy x instrumentality x valence

The association between the action and the outcome of the action (action will lead to achieve goal)

The type of outcome derived b/c of an action (achievement of a goal will lead to reward)

The value placed on the desirability of the outcome by the employee

An individual will act (performance) in a certain manner b/c there is an expectation (motivation) that the act will result in an outcome. Equity theory

Developed by:

This theory attempts to describe:

Stacy Adams-a research psychologist

The relationship in which an individual give something (input) and in exchange receives something (outcome)

Ex: an individual expects that if he/she works hard at a job (input), he/she will receive compensation or recognition (outcome) based on what he/she put in

Concepts of power, empowerment, and change
Power is The larger concept from which authority is derived Power is defined asInfluence wielded (used) by an individual or group of individuals to change behaviors & attitudes and to sway decisions Authority isA formal right based on the manager’s position in the organization.

A source of legitimate power
5 bases/sources of powerReward, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert power

Coercive, reward, & legitimate power – are considered formal bases of power

Referent & expert power – are personal bases of power

Two other bases of power

Informational power vs. charismatic powerInformational power – is the power held by an individual who has the information necessary for others to accomplish a task or goal

Charismatic power – is the power that attracts one individual to another Empowerment isThe transfer or delegation of responsibility & authority from managers to employees; empowerment is the sharing of power (sharing vision, mission, knowledge, expertise…)


Planned Change Theory

Central to Lewin theory

A field –

Force – have 2 forces (driving force vs. restraining forces)

By Kurt Lewin (a German psychologist –if u care!!!)

The concepts of field and force

Can be viewed as a system (if one part of the system change, then the whole system must be examined to determine the effect of that change)

Driving force – encourages/facilitates movement to a new direction, goal, or outcome

Restraining force – (opposite with driving force). Restraining forces block or impede progress toward the goal.

Problem-Solving and decision-making processes

The Rational Decision-Making ModelInvolves a cognitive process where each step follows in a logical order from the one before. By cognitive, It means -based on thinking through and weighing up the alternatives to come up with the best potential result.

Bounded rational decision-making model (Bounded rationality) Means that humans are unable to make entirely rational decision b/c of the limits of human mental abilities and b/c of the influence of external force on decision...
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