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1.Family, Household and reference groups

1.1.Reference groups
Reference groups are the most important groups to marketers since they affect behavior and purchasing (Rice, 1997).Value-expressive influence is one form of reference group influence (Solomon , Bamossy , Askegaard and Hogg,2006) in which “The individual sometimes feels that it would be nice to be like the type of person that advertisements show using a particular brand”.(Solomon, Bamossy, Askegaard and Hogg,2006 p.351).Following this rule, Nike provided an opportunity on its NikeWomen website for the young athlete women to be a Nike Field Reporter.The new service ,THE GIG, allows the young people to register online for the position.Although it seems the company tries to involve a few young athletes, more than that they tries to influence its target group, young women, by reference group.Whoever they choose as a reporter to interview the world’s top athletes, they make a video from her athletic lifestyle and add it in her profile on (NikeWomen,2008).Recently, Nike has got the 23 years old Meghan Brennan as the Nike Field Reporter (NikeWomen,2008). They know that if the young people admire the qualities of Meghan then they would imitate those qualities by copying her behaviour in terms of her choices for athletic footwear and apparel (Solomon, Bamossy , Askegaard and Hogg,2006).So, Meghan has been shown in the video as a strong and responsible girl who has got a lot of energy and wanted to be the best (NikeWomen,2008).Nike knows information is exchanged by observational learning among young people (Antonides and Raaij, 1998) and they show Meghan while she is swimming and playing Soccer in Nike’s clothes and trainers (NikeWomen,2008).She says in the video that she taught her discipline from Swimming and being tough from Soccer (NikeWomen,2008). With the knowledge of existing a tendency among the youth to conform to Meghan’s norms (Antonides and Raaij, 1998) it seems Nike has...
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