Mr Shane Cogan

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Unit 3 Sport and Exercise Sciences
Psychology
Assignment 1

Unit 3 Sport & Exercise Sciences
That’s How I Roll
Personality
Task 1.Personality is the unique blend of psychological characteristics that differentiates one sports athlete to another. Some personalities are completely contrasting compared to others, whereas certain athletes have similar personalities. Sports has been a popular subject for psychologists in recent years, however pin pointing hard evidence to back up theories on personality in sport are thin. A question that I have is: Are certain personalities attracted to sport? “Silva’s own personality and performance pyramid proposes that all sorts of personalities enter sport, but as athlete’s progress and move up the pyramid towards elite levels, only those with adaptive personality characteristics advance.” In response to Silva’s own personality performance pyramid I would agree that at foundation levels of sport it is very much for the purpose of enjoyment and exercise but as individual athletes grow and progress within their sport naturally they become more competitive and eager to win therefor individuals who are more adaptive and willing to enhance themselves will be more successful. Trait Theory of Personality

Traits are what make us who we are; they are the relatively permanent aspects of each of us evidenced by the consistency in our interactions. The trait theory states that we inherit personality characteristics from our parents at birth, which will influence the way in which we behave in situations, both in sport and everyday life. Characteristics such as humour, feelings and beliefs will define a person for who they are and what they do with their individual sports. The narrow band category is grouped into two separate categories which identifies A from B. Type A behaviour – Individuals that fall within the A category are referred to as highly competitive they have the will to achieve, impatient and lack tolerance towards others. They also have high levels of anxiety. Type B behaviour – Individuals are far more relaxed than category A and are also more tolerant towards others, contrasting to type A, type B have much lower personal anxiety and they take time to complete tasks. The two different bands will have an impact on sport due to the differences in their personalities, for example type A will be more motivated for competition than type B who will be more relaxed and uninterested. The trait theory offers some explanations about behaviours such as aggression. Males would fight each other for territory in hunter gatherer times and so it may explain aggression today, that we have inherited this trait from our ancestors because the more aggressive we are the more likely we are to survive and pass on our genes.

Strengths
The biggest strength of trait theory is its reliance on statistical or objective data The trait theory provides useful descriptions of personality and its structure Its focuses on positive dimensions of personality

Weaknesses
It provides no explanation of personality development
It ignores the environmental factors which may differ from situation to situation Some traits can be acquired by training and may not be inherited Social Learning Theory
The social learning approach to personalities concludes that individuals personalities are learned rather than being genetically past down in traits. According to the social learning theory our behaviour is influenced by that of others, we often copy other individual’s behaviour and characteristics as we would like to imitate that person who is seen by us as a role model or also known as a significant other. An example is the 2006 Fifa world cup, which took place in Germany, was watched around the world by millions of fans, and many young supporters who idealise football and its sports stars. However during the final between France & Italy, Zinedine Zidane received a straight red card for a deliberate...
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