By: John Mayer, Austin Snyder
Map of Pakistan
is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakam range in the north. Pakistan geologically overlaps both with the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates where its Sindh and Punjabprovinces lie on the north-western corner of the
• Pakistan Monument • Daman-e-Koh • Lahore Fort
Prior to creation as a modern state in 1947, the area of modern Pakistan was both ruled by local kings and under numerous imperial power throughout different time periods. The ancient history of the region comprising present-day Pakistan also includes some of the oldest empires from the subcontinent and some of its major civilizations. By the 18th century the land was incorporated into British India. The political history of the nation began with the birth of the All India Muslim League in 1906 to protect "Muslim interests, amid neglect and under-representation" and to oppose Congress and growing Indian nationalism in return the British Raj would decide to grant local self-rule. On 29 December 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal called for an autonomous new state in "northwestern India for Indian Muslims". The League rose to popularity in the late 1930s. Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, demanding the formation of independent states in the East and the West of British India. Eventually, a united Pakistan with its wings – West Pakistan and East Pakistan – gained independence from the British, on 14 August 1947. After a civil war, the Bengal region of East Pakistan, separated at a considerable distance from the rest of Pakistan, became the independent state of Bangladesh in 1971.
September 1948 - Pakistan's founder and first governor-general, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, dies. October 1951 - Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan is shot dead. October 1958 - Governor-General Iskander Mirza enforces martial law with General Ayub Khan as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Ayub Khan later assumes the presidency and sacks Mirza. September 1965 - India-Pakistan war over disputed Kashmir region. March 1969 - General Yahya Khan takes over from Ayub Khan. December 1970 - Elections are held under which Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto wins in West Pakistan but the Awami League wins nearly all seats in East Pakistan, giving it an overall majority. Yahya and Bhutto refuse to allow the Awami League to form a government. Dec 1971 - India and Pakistan fight war over East Pakistan, which ends in surrender of 90,000 Pakistani troops and leads to the creation of Bangladesh. - Yahya hands power over to Bhutto, who takes over as prime minister in 1973. 1977 - Army chief General Zia-ul-Haq seizes power. April 1979 - Bhutto is hanged on disputed conviction for conspiring to commit a political murder. August 1988 - Zia dies in plane crash. November - Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfiqar, wins elections. 1990 - President Ghulam Ishaq Khan sacks Bhutto's government, accusing it of corruption and abuse of power. Nawaz Sharif is elected prime minister. 1993 - Ishaq Khan dismisses Sharif's government, accusing it of corruption. Bhutto becomes prime minister again. November 1996 - President Farooq Leghari sacks Bhutto and calls elections, which are won by Sharif.
14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan, commemorating the day when Pakistan achieved independence and was declared a sovereign nation, following the end of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan came into existence as a result of the Pakistan Movement; the Pakistan Movement aimed for creation of an independent Muslim state by partition of the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent and was led by All-India Muslim...