Pakistan is rich and unique in its biodiversity. The country lies at the western end of the South Asian subcontinent, and its flora and fauna are composed of a blend of Palearctic and Indomalayan elements, with some groups also containing forms from the Ethiopian region. More than two-thirds of Pakistan is arid or semiarid. The west is dominated by the Baluchistan plateau, consisting of arid plains and ridges. Rivers, streams, and lakes exist only seasonally. The arid south ends at the rugged Makran coast and rises to the east into a series of rock-strewn ranges, the Kirthar, and to the north, the Sulaiman, which extends to the Indus plains. A semiwatered plateau surrounds Rawalpindi, bounded to the south by the salt range. Southward, the extensive Punjab plains support about 60% of the country's population. In the northern areas of Pakistan, the forest-clad hills give way to lofty ranges, including 60 peaks over 6,700 m (22,000 ft) high. K-2 (Godwin Austen), at 8,611 m (28,250 ft), is the second-highest mountain in the world. The principal ranges, trending NW – SE, include several Himalayan ranges—notably the Pir Panjal and Zaskar—leading into the Karakoram Mountains. The Indus is the principal river of Pakistan. Its major tributaries are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej. [pic]
Fig 1: Map of Pakistan Background:
The recorded history of Lahore, a district of modern-day Pakistan, covers thousands of years. It has since its creation changed hands from Hindu, Greek, Persian, Muslim, Sikh and British rule to becoming the cultural capital and the heart of modern day Pakistan. Originally Lahore was a Tropical thorn forest, with time it turned into an agricultural land. To fulfill the needs of increasing population it was converted into small village then town and now Lahore is a cosmopolitan city. Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. Historically the main city of the undivided Punjab, it is often called the Garden of Mughals because of its rich Mughal heritage. It successively served as provincial/regional capital of the empires of the Shahi kingdoms, the Ghaznavids, the Ghurid State, the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire, and it was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj. Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, and the mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jehan are popular tourist attractions for the city. Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Mughal-Gothic style, such as the Lahore High Court, the General Post Office (GPO), the Lahore Museum, and many older universities including the University of the Punjab. Lahore is often referred to as the cultural heart of Pakistan, as it is the center of Pakistani arts, films and intelligents [pic][pic]
Fig 2: Map of Lahore
Geography and Climate:
Lying between 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur District. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 km² and is still growing. Lahore features a hot semi-arid climate with long and extremely hot summers, dry and relatively mild winters, a monsoon and dust storms. The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June and July, when the temperatures soar to 40–48 °C (104–118 °F). The lowest temperature recorded in Lahore is −6 °C (21.2 °F). Population of Lahore:
According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was nearly 7 million. Mid-2006 government census estimated that now the population is approximately 10 million. This makes Lahore the fifth largest city in South Asia and the 26th largest city in the world. In 2008, Lahore was ranked as a city...