Partition of India

Topics: Pakistan, British Raj, Indian National Congress Pages: 9 (3441 words) Published: March 15, 2013
On the 18, July 1947 India declared it’s independence from the British Empire after almost 200 years of being rule over the country. But independence was short lived after a day; the country was split up into 2 different countries which became Pakistan. Later the Pakistani province of East Pakistan will declare it’s independence from Pakistan which became the country Bangladesh. India was split up on the bases of religion which has created bitter relations between the populations of these three countries. Majority of India during British rule were made up of Hindus, with the Sikhs and the Muslims making up the minority. The majority of the Muslim population of India didn’t want to be ruled under a Hindu majority and declared its intentions to create their own state. With this common thought shared among the Muslim population came idea the partition which the country of India will be split into to two, with the Muslim receive the control of the Muslim dominated areas, while the Sikhs and the Hindu will remained in control of India. The Impact of partition led to the biggest mass migration in history with an estimate of 15 million people moving between the borders of India and Pakistan, displacement of 12.5 million people, brutal riots and massacres between the Muslim, Sikhs and Hindus with an estimate death toll of a million people and the provinces of Punjab in the North West of the Country and the Bengal in the East being cut in half which has created a hostile relationship between the two countries. The hostile relations between the 2 countries have lead the two countries into 4 major wars with The Indo – Pakistani civil war of 1947 and 1971 with the war of 1971 resulted in the Pakistani province of East Pakistan breaking away from Pakistani rule becoming the independent state Bangladesh. Today relations between both countries have been hostile with both contesting each in a nuclear arms race which in recent times has threatened to lead into a nuclear war. In British India as seen below, a map which outline where the major religious groups of British India lived, The Hindus seen in yellow on the map were the majority in British India with an estimated population of 255 million followed with the Muslim with an estimated population of 92 million people and mainly reside in the north east and north west of the country, while the Sikhs were the smallest out of the 3 groups with a population of 6 million and mainly Sikhs lived in the small area of the Punjab province which was a richest province in British India.

Through out history Muslim, Hindus and Sikhs often had major feud with each on social differences, still British India remained peaceful with Muslim, Hindus and Sikhs population living side by side with one and another. But In everyday Indian society the Muslim population where seen by the Hindu and Sikh population as inferior. Muslim generally had lower class jobs and poor education in comparison the Hindus and Sikhs who were highly educated and the well off jobs in India. In 1600 Britain came to India to establish a trading company called the East India Company. The Company grew rapidly resulted in full control of India. In 1858 the British government decided to take direct control over the whole of India from the company. During these times the Indian society became more modern in its thinking and had changing traditional ideas. With the modernization of Indian society and western ideals being engrained in the mindset of the Indian population, nationalistic view begins to arise. The Indian started to call for an Independent self – governing India. In the late 19th century, there was growing support from the Indian population for Independence from Britain which resulted in many nationalist parties to be formed. In 1885 the Indian National Congress (INC) a group calling for independence from Britain was establish. Majority of the Members of the INC where Hindu. Within a few years of being establish the party...
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