History of Pakistan

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  • Topic: Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto, Pervez Musharraf
  • Pages : 4 (1202 words )
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  • Published : April 8, 2013
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Prior to creation as a modern state in 1947, the area of modern Pakistan was both ruled by local kings and under various imperial power throughout different time periods. The ancient history of the region comprising present-day Pakistan also includes some of the oldest empires from the subcontinent[1] and some of its major civilizations.[2][3][4][5] By the 18th century the land was incorporated into British India. The political history of the nation began with the birth of the All India Muslim League in 1906 to protect "Muslim interests, amid neglect and under-representation" and to oppose Congress and growing Indian nationalism in return the British Raj would decide to grant local self-rule. On 29 December 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal called for an autonomous new state in "northwestern India for Indian Muslims".[6] The League rose to popularity in the late 1930s. Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the League to adopt the Lahore Resolution[7] of 1940, demanding the formation of independent states in the East and the West of British India. Eventually, a united Pakistan with its wings – West Pakistan and East Pakistan – gained independence from the British, on 14 August 1947. After a civil war, the Bengal region of East Pakistan, separated at a considerable distance from the rest of Pakistan, became the independent state of Bangladesh in 1971. Pakistan declared itself an Islamic republic on adoption of a constitution in 1956, but the civilian rule was stalled by the 1958 military coup d'etat by Ayub Khan, who ruled during a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. Economic grievances and political disenfranchisement in East Pakistan led to violent political tensions and army repression, escalating into civil war[8] followed by the third war with India. Pakistan's defeat in the war ultimately led to the secession of East Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh.[9] Civilian rule resumed from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali...
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