Motivation vs Psychological Contract

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During the history people’s expectations and needs have been changing. They depends inter alia on actual situation on the market and current necessities of life. The economy climate is also important in creating people’s performance. People will make a good performance at work when their situation is certain. Poor performance will be made when situation is unstable. One of the key issues connected with the employee performance is motivation. Without well-motivated employees enterprise cannot exist on the market for a long time. Employees are very important part of the company, because thanks to them it can perform properly and fulfill its goals and assumptions. Unmotivated employees will not make their job with proper involvement and commitment, so their performance will be contrary to expectations of an employer. One of the biggest challenge for an employer is to motivate its employees to perform on the required level. Nowadays, it is not easy thing to do. Different types of employees have different expectations and things which motivate them. Different authors created motivation theories, but most of them was created in the last century. Great influence over people has also a psychological contract between them and their organization. Motivation theories and the psychological contract are the most powerful tools to motivate people, when they are used in the right context.

Person is motivated when he knows what he wants to do to achieve specific goal. Motivation covers all factors which makes person to act from positive, like money, to negative, like fear of defeat. Motivation factors are different for each individual person. They are changing because of age, sex, position in society, education, level of skills, knowledge and circumstances. Also support from the managers and leaders has a significant meaning. Unmotivated manager cannot lead people to good performance. Organizational background and surrounding environment should be motivating. When managers knows employee’s needs, demands and expectations they are able to treat one as an individual and have specific approach depending on person’s character and attitude. Managers cannot forget about person’s development and setting realistic and challenging targets. Important in keeping positive motivation is also reward for a good job performance. People like to be awarded and that keeps them self-motivated on a high level (Adair 2006). “Motivation is an important part both in an individual’s and in a company’s performance. Even very well trained and very able employee will not perform well unless motivated. Higher motivation does not always result in a direct increase in productivity, because, in many jobs, productivity is limited by other people or by the pace of machine”(Robertson 1992:137). The motivation theories fall into two groups content and process theories. “First of them explain why people behave in a particular way in terms of those individuals’ pursuits of need fulfillment. Content theories attempt to determine the specific needs that motivate individuals”(Gallagher 1997). A group of the content theories includes theories of McGregor, Herzberg and McClelland. Process theories are those of, for example, Vroom’s, Adams’, Hackman’s and Oldham’s. Theory X and Theory Y created by McGregor assumed there are two kinds of people. In Theory X people are lazy, unambitious and want to avoid responsibility. Employees are against the system and represent defensive attitude. Very high level of supervising is required otherwise people will perform very poor. Theory Y says that work is in a human nature and it is able to provide enjoyment and self-fulfillment. Managers have just to make a positive climate for personal development and minimize supervision. Thanks to this people will feel self-reliance, confident and self-actualized (Tyson 1993:11). Herzberg was researching factors which have influence over people’s feelings about work. Those factors brings...
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