Characteristics of babyhood: (From 2 weeks to 2 years)
i) Babyhood is the true foundation age. At this time, many behavior patterns, attitudes and emotional expressions are established. It is a critical period in setting the pattern for personal and emotional adjustments.
ii) Babyhood is an age of rapid growth and development. Babies grow rapidly both physically and psychologically. Changes are rapid in appearance (height and weight) and capacities. The limbs develop in better proportion to the large head. Intellectual growth and change are parallel to physical growth and change.
iii) Ability grows to recognize and respond to people and objects in the environment. The baby is able to understand many things and communicate its needs and wants.
iv) The babyhood is an age of decreasing dependency. The baby begins to do things to itself. With decrease of dependency, a rebellion against being treated as baby. A protest takes protest comes in the form of angry outbursts and crying when independence is denied.
v) It is an age of high individuality which can be realized in appearance and in patterns of behavior.
vi) Babyhood is the beginning of Creativity, sex role and socialization for adjustment in future life.
vii) Babyhood is a hazardous period. The physical hazards are illness, accidents, disabilities and death. Psychological hazards are disinterests and negative attitude.
Havighurst's Developmental Tasks During The babyhood
Learning to take solid food
Learning to walk.
Learning to talk.
Learning to control the elimination of body wastes.
Learning sex differences and sex modesty.
Getting ready to read.
Learning to distinguish right & wrong and beginning to develop a conscience.
Hand skills – self-feeding , self dressing,and play skills Leg skills-Jumping, climbing stairs, running without falling
speech development in babyhood
Talking is one of the biggest milestones there is, and the latest research suggests there's a lot you can do to help your child become a master chatter.
Months before my daughter Ella spat out her first official word ("bath!"), she was a Chatty Cathy in terms of sheer noise--exercising her pipes by howling for a feeding, squealing at a sock puppet, or babbling "ba ba ba" at the top of her lungs. And it turns out there's a reason behind the racket. For babies, it's a kind of linguistic cross-training--a way they prep for the main event of real speech, otherwise known as one of the coolest milestones ever.
The average age at which kids utter a bona fide first word is 12 months, and they're able to manage two-word "sentences" by the time they're 2. But (reality check!) as any pediatrician will attest, babies hit language milestones at a wide range of ages. A child who seems behind can all of a sudden make a giant leap ahead of her peers, verbally. And a kid who starts talking early may get stuck on the same few words for months before adding more to her repertoire. So no comparing or panicking! Sure, you can hardly wait to hear that first word or "wuv you." But like all Big Moments in your baby's life--sleeping through the night, sitting up, first steps--it will happen when she's ready.
There are, however, proven ways you can nudge language development along, experts say. Check out our stage-by-stage (and completely anxiety-free!) guide to baby talk for the scoop on what you'll hear, when to expect it, and how best to keep up your end of the conversation.
Crying may not sound conversational, but it's your newborn's primary way to communicate, meaning she uses it for everything from "I'm tired" and "I need food" to "It's a little too bright in here." Wailing also primes your baby for genuine language by strengthening the same neural pathways in the brain that are used for speech--and by giving her larynx, the organ in the throat responsible for sound production, a good workout.