Tda 2.1 Describe the Expected Pattern of Development from Birth to 19 Years to Include, Physical, Communication and Intellectual, Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development

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TDA 2.1 Child & Young Persons Development

1.1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young peoples development from birth to 19 years to include:-

* Physical Development
* Communication and Intellectual development
* Social , emotional and behavioural development

A child’s development can be measured through physical and language milestones, intellectual, emotional and social development. Each child follows a similar pattern, but each child can vary in their development and reach milestones at different times in their development. This is called the Holistic Process.

In general, child development progresses:-
* From head to toe, beginning at the top of the body and gradually moving downwards. * From inner to outer. Firstly gaining control of muscles close to the trunk/head and then moving outwards so the large muscles in the shoulders and upper arms/thighs are first and the extremities last. * From simple to complex, children progress from simple words to complex sentences. * From general to specific, emotional responses involve the whole body in young babies but may involve only the face in an older child., accessed 04/02/2013

Physical Development

Physical development includes movement skills, gross and fine motor skills, eye - hand co-ordination and general coordination. There is also a significant increase in muscular strength.

From birth to 3 months babies have very little control over their bodies and much of their time is spent sleeping, although this is a very fast growth period for physical development. Their first movements are reflex, for example, suckling, grasping a finger. Gradually baby will start to lift its head and gradual movements of the arms and legs become smoother. The grasp reflex is decreased as the hand-eye coordination develops.

From 3 - 9 months babies will begin to gain control of their neck muscles and their eyes will follow people and objects around the room. They may begin to sit up unaided and start to crawl/shuffle. The pincer grab will form and they may be happy to play alone for short periods of time.

Piaget described this stage from birth to approximately 2 years as a period of rapid cognitive growth. Initially equipped with a set of reflex movements and a set of perceptual systems, the infant quickly begins to build up direct knowledge of the world around it by relating physical actions to perceived results. by Saul McLeod, published 2010, accessed 06/02/2013Stages of Cognitive Development Stage | Characterised by |

(Birth-2 yrs) | Differentiates self from objects  Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise  Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley)  | Pre-operational 

(2-7 years) | Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words  Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others  Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour  | Concrete operational 

(7-11 years) | Can think logically about objects and events  Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9)  Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.  | Formal operational 

(11 years and up) | Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically  Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems  |

Stages of Cognitive Development
Stage | Characterised by |
(Birth-2 yrs) | Differentiates self...
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