Challenges and Responses
Modern Migration (1960’s -1990’s)
Prof. Lilia Casanova
Helmuth Janica Mae R.
Table of Contents
Modern Migration Routes 3
Interview with an OFW 4
Illegal Recruitment 6
Overseas Employment Scams 7
Typical Overseas Employment Scams 7
The story of humanity is of people constantly in movement. Anthropology, history and sociology are disciplines that study how people migrate, come into contact with others, and build and manage communities all over the world, from ancient to contemporary societies. Although human migration is ubiquitous across time, the designation of people as certain types of migrants is a relatively new phenomenon in history. Consider the various labels now affixed to people who leave their place of birth: * Internal versus international migrants;
* Legal versus illegal, irregular or undocumented migrants; * Voluntary versus forced migrants;
* Economic migrants versus refugees and asylum seekers;
* Permanent versus circular migrants;
* Primary versus secondary (or chain) migrants; and
* Smuggled and trafficked migrants
Modern Migration Routes (1960s to the 1990)
Migration data collection is uneven; undocumented migrants are not counted, and multiple layers of local, regional, state, national and international bureaucracy complicate the picture. Data collectors cannot know if a migrant’s temporary destination is his final one; many people are routinely counted as one type of migrant when they may simply be in transit or settling temporarily. We can, however, identify some of the main migration routes of the last quarter century: * For international migration, areas of origin have historically been, and continued to be, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa. * Primary destination countries both historically and currently are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. * New destination countries include India, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Spain and Portugal. * North America, with 41 million or 23.4% of total migrants, has seen the greatest percentage increase in migration between 1990 and 2000, at 48%. * Statistics from the former USSR, where many are considered migrants simply because the borders around them have changed, are misleading. Adjusted for this, the US emerges as the primary destination country for international migrants, followed by Germany, France, India and Canada. * In none of these primary destination countries do migrants constitute a large percentage of the population as a whole. Countries with the highest ratio of foreigners to natives are the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Jordan, Israel and Singapore.
Specific migrant flows were seen in the following areas over the last quarter century: * Afghan refugees to Iran and Pakistan following war with the Soviets in the 1980s; * Asian populations to the US in the wake of wars in Southeast Asia and immigration policies ending...