Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

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INVITED PAPER

Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
Tools that can model embedded software as well as components, and can automate the details of electric and hybrid vehicle design, need to be developed. By David Wenzhong Gao, Senior Member IEEE, Chris Mi, Senior Member IEEE, and Ali Emadi, Senior Member IEEE

ABSTRACT

| This paper discusses the need for modeling and

simulation of electric and hybrid vehicles. Different modeling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modeling examples. The modeling and simulation capabilities of existing tools such as Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR), PSIM, and Virtual Test Bed are demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed. KEYWORDS

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ADVISOR; bond graph; electric vehicles; hybrid

electric vehicle (HEV); hybrid vehicles; modeling and simulation; physics-based modeling; Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT); PSIM; saber; simplorer; Virtual Test Bed (VTB)

I. INTRODUCTION
Compared to conventional vehicles, there are more electrical components used in electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, such as electric machines, power electronics, electronic continuously variable transmissions (CVT), and embedded powertrain controllers [1], [2]. Advanced energy storage devices and energy converters, such as Liion batteries, ultracapacitors, and fuel cells, are introduced in the next generation powertrains. In addition to these electrification components or subsystems, conventional

Manuscript received July 8, 2006; revised November 2, 2006. D. W. Gao is with Center of Energy Systems Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38501 USA (e-mail: wgao@tntech.edu). C. Mi is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 USA (e-mail: mi@ieee.org). A. Emadi is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616-3793 USA (e-mail: emadi@iit.edu). Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/JPROC.2006.890127

internal combustion engines (ICE) and mechanical and hydraulic systems may still be present. The dynamic interactions among various components and the multidisciplinary nature make it difficult to analyze a newly designed hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Each of the design parameters must be carefully chosen for better fuel economy, enhanced safety, exceptional drivability, and a competitive dynamic performanceVall at a price acceptable to the consumer market. Prototyping and testing each design combination is cumbersome, expensive, and time consuming. Modeling and simulation are indispensable for concept evaluation, prototyping, and analysis of HEVs. This is particularly true when novel hybrid powertrain configurations and controllers are developed. Furthermore, the complexity of new powertrain designs and dependence on embedded software is a cause of concern to automotive research and development efforts. This results in an increasing difficulty in predicting interactions among various vehicle components and systems. A modeling environment that can model not only components but also embedded software, such as the Electronic Throttle Controller (ETC) software, is needed. Effective diagnosis also presents a challenge. Modeling can play an important role in the diagnostics of the operating components. For example, running an embedded fuel cell model and comparing the actual fuel cell operating variables with those obtained from the model can help fault diagnosis of fuel cells. A face-off with modeling and simulation tools in the electronics industry has demonstrated that similar...
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