English 102: Writing Research Paper
Instructor: David McCarthy
1. Introduction Paragraph and thesis
2. History of Electric Vehicles
a) 1890-1929: Early ideas
b) 1930-1989: brought up due to shortages from WWII
c) 1900-present: environmental issues, shortage on gasoline
3. Impact on environment and what needs to be done
a) Power grids
b) Impacts on power grid
c) CO2 (Carbon Monoxide) production from cars
d) Power grid study
e) Power grids need to be upgraded to be more efficient
f) Development into electrical infrastructure will need to be changed to be able to handle the extra demand.
g) The automobile is the primary contributor to greenhouse gases
h) The United States is currently 20 years ahead of the world in the release of emissions with cars, contributing 5% of the world’s total carbon emissions.
4. How to get there
a) Electric vehicle charging stations need to be metered and priced separately so charging can be monitored and incentives given to encourage recharging time frames
b) Development of electric vehicles and batteries is still being worked on
c) Many advancements need to be made to our infrastructure before a large percent of our vehicles could transition to electric power.
d) More improvements on the lithium ion battery.
e) Recycling batteries
5. Benefits and Challenges
a) The savings benefits of owning hybrids and electric vehicles (benefits)
b) Electric Vehicles would also decrease are dependency on foreign oil (Benefits)
c) Technological aspects of the hybrid vehicle and where auto makers see the industry in 20 years (Benefits)
d) Larger impacts and potential obstacles electric cars will being to the society (Challenge)
e) Researchers estimated that the mining, smelting, and recycling or more than 500 kilograms of lead batteries per vehicle would cause a far greater environmental problem than the air quality problem it might solve. (Challenge)
f) If hundreds of millions of cars and trucks ran on electricity, oil’s statues as a strategic commodity would be threatened. The influence of unfriendly oil producers would sharply diminish
March 11, 2011
Throughout the automotive history in the United States, many car companies have thought of the electric car as the solution to the problem of gasoline shortage. The number of people owning cars has grown exponentially. In nineteen-eleven there were five hundred and seventy eight thousand automobiles in use in the United States. Today, there are between one- hundred and fifty and two million vehicles in the United States. (Anderson. 107) There is promising research on both the benefits and downfalls of the electric car, but it can be assured that they will eventually change the world of transportation.
According to Electric and Hybrid Cars by Curtis and Judy Anderson, research on electric vehicles began as early as the eighteen-hundreds. It was started off in the earlier development with the advantages of the electric vehicle of being quieter, cleaner, and easier to start than a gasoline engine. From the nineteen-thirties through nineteen-eighty-nine a new interest in electric cars become even more apparent due to the gasoline shortage during WWII and the energy crisis of the nineteen-seventies. Today, the development of electric cars is driven by the rising fuel costs and the environmental concerns with the climate changes. (Anderson. 22)
One thing especially important to consider is how the charging process of the electric vehicle will affect the nation’s power grids. Writer of the journal “Modernizing the Grid”, J. Weeks, suggests that the...