Microbiology

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Terms to Know

Decomposer - Breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds Prokaryote – No nucleus - microscopic, unicellular organisms, lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles Pathogen - Microorganisms that do harm

Eukaryote - unicellular (microscopic) and multicellular, nucleus and membrane-bound organelles alcohol -
archaeobacteria - Prokaryotic single-celled organisms of primitive origin that have unusual anatomy, physiology, and genetics, and live in harsh habitats; when capitalized (Archaea), the term refers to one of the three domains of living organisms as proposed by Woese. ATP - The energy molecule of cells. Adenosine triphosphate. Transfers and stores energy attenuated vaccine - To reduce the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium or virus by passing it through a non-native host or by long-term subculture. caposemere - A subunit of the virus capsid shaped as a triangle or disc. Capsule - In bacteria, the loose, gellike covering or slime made chiefly of simple polysaccharides. This layer is protective and can be associated with virulence. Carrier - A person who harbors infections and inconspicuously spreads them to others. Also, a chemical agent that can accept an atom, chemical radical, or subatomic particle from one compound and pass it on to another. Cholesterol - Best-known member of a group of lipids called steroids. Cholesterol is commonly found in cell membranes and animal hormones. Chronic disease - Any process or disease that persists over a long duration. Control -

control group
covalent bond - A chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms. disinfect - The destruction of pathogenic nonsporulating microbes or their toxins, usually on inanimate surfaces. Electrolyte - Any compound that ionizes in solution and conducts current in an electrical field. Electron - A negatively charged subatomic particle that is distributed around the nucleus in an atom. element - A substance comprising only one kind of atom that cannot be degraded into two or more substances without losing its chemical characteristics. endemic - A native disease that prevails continuously in a geographic region. Endotoxin - A bacterial intracellular toxin that is not ordinarily released (as is exotoxin). Endotoxin is composed of a phospholipid-polysaccharide complex that is an integral part of gram-negative bacterial cell walls. Endotoxins can cause severe shock and fever. Enzyme - A protein biocatalyst that facilitates metabolic reactions. Epidemic - A sudden and simultaneous outbreak or increase in the number of cases of disease in a community. Epidemiology - The study of the factors affecting the prevalence and spread of disease within a community. Exotoxin
fatty acid
Fermeter - A large tank used in industrial microbiology to grow mass quantities of microbes that can Fomite - Virtually any inanimate object an infected individual has contact with that can serve as a vehicle for the spread of disease. Fructose - One of the carbohydrates commonly referred to as sugars. Fructose is commonly fruit sugars. Genome - The complete set of chromosomes and genes in an organism. Glucose - One of the carbohydrates commonly referred to as sugars. Glucose is characterized by its 6-carbon structure. glycerol - A 3-carbon alcohol, with three OH groups that serve as binding sites. Helminth - A term that designates all parasitic worms. Host range - The limitation imposed by the characteristics of the host cell on the type of virus that can successfully invade it. hydrogen bond - A weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of forces between molecules or atoms—in this case, hydrogen and either oxygen or nitrogen. In this type of bond, electrons are not...
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