Purpose of Bergy’s Manual: based on ribosomal RNA sequences, which presumably reflect phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships. Used for the identification of prokaryotes. 2nd edition on classification of prokaryotes. 4 Tests/ Parameters that are evaluated to classify bacteria are: procedure’s that determine an organism’s ability to ferment carious carbohydrates; utilize various substrates such as specific amino acids, starch, citrate, and gelatin; or produce waste products such as hydrogen sulfide gas and also differences in fatty acid composition of bacteria are also used to distinguish between bacteria. 4 Divisions of procaryotic bacteria per Bergy’s Manual are: Gracillicutes, Firmicutes, Tenericutes, and Mendosciutes What kingdoms are procaryotic organisms classified? Monera and What domains are procaryotic organisms classified? Archae and Bacteria Description of the following including, Gram stain, Morphology, and Genus species of common representative organisms & significant characteristics organisms & examples Enterobacteriaceae (enterics) -Gram neg., rod shaped fermenting sugars to produce lactic acid. Ex: Salmonella, E. coli, Shigella Micrococcaceae- Gram pos., cocci (round),
Streptococcaceae- Gram pos., Ex: Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Lactovum Mycoplasmataceae- Gram neg., nonmotile microorganism,
Mycobacteriaceae- Gram pos., aerobic and nonmotile, genus of Actinobacteria. Ex: Tuberculosis Rickettsiaceae- Gram neg., sensitive to environmental exposure. Genus-Rickettsia. Ex: Ticks, Lice Chlamydiaceae- Gram neg., Phylum Chlamydiae, Ex: Chlamydia, C. trachoma is, C. suis 7. A 27 year old white female presented at the walking clinic of her local physic al on August 15. On physical exam, the patient had a fever of 38.5C. She appeared fatigued, had tender joints, and complained of a headache, a stiff neck and a backache. The physician noticed a circular “rash” about 5 inches in diameter, with a bright red leading edge and a dim center in the form of a “bull’s eye”. The physician noted an irregular heart beat. The patient complained of lack of ability to concentrate. The patient gave the following history: She is a graduate student in the wildlife program at the university in town. She was in the field for 3 weeks in Wisconsin during the months of May and June. She tracks small mammals in the field and studies their behavior. It had been a warm, wet spring and the complained of a large number of biting flies, mosquitoes and ticks in the area. She felt well until about 2 weeks after returning to her home. Since that time, many of her symptoms had progressed. She finally found that she could take it no more.
a. What is your best diagnosis of this case?
b. What is the etiology, or the genus species name of the causative organism?
c. What features are critical to your diagnosis?
d. What further steps should be taken to clear up the problem?
e. What preventative actions could have been taken?
8. Louis Pasteur said, “The role of the infinitely small in nature is infinitely large.” Explain what he meant by using samples of the roles of microorganisms in health, industry, and the environment. -I think he meant that we need microorganisms in our health because they help our digestive system and we use them in agriculture to make products like, cheese, breads, yogurt, etc. We use them to clean our house and our hands. Medicine such as Penicillin is made from microorganisms which help us when we are sick. Fungi and Algae
1. What kingdom are molds and yeasts classified? Fungi -eucaryotic What domain? Eucaryotes 2. Know defining characteristics of Fungi. Have cell walls which are strong, flexible, nitrogenous polysaccharide called chitin. Lack chlorophyll-do not form photosynthesis. 3. Know the nutritional adaptations of fungi. In nature, they decompose dead organisms (esp. plants) and recycle their nutrients. Fungi are heterotrophs where they...